*Party division totals are based on election day results.
The 71st Congress (1929–1931) confronted the worst economy in American history. During a special session called by the new President Herbert Hoover, the Republican-controlled Congress responded to the long-term agricultural recession with the Agricultural Marketing Act. Congress enacted the Smoot-Hawley Tariff after the October 1929 stock market crash. The tariff raised the prices of imported goods and further exacerbated a worldwide economic downturn as international trade collapsed. Congress also established the Veterans’ Administration as an independent agency and adopted Francis Scott Key’s “The Star-Spangled Banner” as the national anthem.
To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section
1Resigned from the House, October 5, 1930; there is no record of an election to fill the vacancy as caucus chair.