*Party division totals are based on election day results.
England’s war with Napoleon monopolized the attention of the 11th Congress (1809–1811) as the United States attempted to navigate between the two European powers. At President James Madison’s prodding, though, Congress tried once more to pass legislation to dissuade Europe’s main powers from impressing U.S. sailors and seizing its merchant ships. Congress simultaneously took advantage of European turmoil by authorizing the acquisition of Spanish West Florida.
To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section