*Party division totals are based on election day results.
Republicans retained control of Congress and the presidency after the 1900 elections, and Theodore Roosevelt became President following William McKinley’s assassination. Senate approval of a treaty with Great Britain led the 57th Congress (1901–1903) to authorize funds to build a canal in Panama linking the Pacific Ocean with the Caribbean Sea. Congress also revised plans for a colonial government in the Philippines and strengthened the federal government’s ability to prosecute antitrust violations.
To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section