*Party division totals are based on election day results.
Democrats retained their House majority and won the White House for the first time since the Civil War in 1884, despite Republican gains strengthening their Senate majority. The divided 49th Congress (1885–1887) produced a substantial legislative record. It established presidential succession beyond the Vice President; authorized new space for the Library of Congress; reformed procedures for contested electoral votes; regulated railroad rates with the Interstate Commerce Act; replaced the Indian reservation system with citizenship in the Dawes General Allotment (Severalty) Act; repealed the Tenure of Office Act; and seized the Mormon Church’s property until it disavowed polygamy.
To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section