The 71st Congress (1929–1931) confronted the worst economy in American history. During a special session called by the new President Herbert Hoover, the Republican-controlled Congress responded to the long-term agricultural recession with the Agricultural Marketing Act. Congress enacted the Smoot-Hawley Tariff after the October 1929 stock market crash. The tariff raised the prices of imported goods and further exacerbated a worldwide economic downturn as international trade collapsed. Congress also established the Veterans’ Administration as an independent agency and adopted Francis Scott Key’s “The Star-Spangled Banner” as the national anthem.