Historical Highlight

Party Divisions of the House of Representatives*

1789–Present

Political parties have been central to the organization and operations of the U.S. House of Representatives. As this chart demonstrates, the efforts of the founding generation to create a national government free of political parties proved unworkable. Parties demonstrated their worth in the House very quickly in organizing its work and in bridging the separation of powers. Within a decade House parties absorbed the various state and local factions.

The figures presented are the House party divisions as of the initial election results for a particular Congress. This means that subsequent changes in House membership due to deaths, resignations, contested or special elections, or changes in a Member’s party affiliation are not included.

The determination of party membership relies upon a number of authoritative sources that include The Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, the House Clerk’s Election Statistics, Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to U.S. Elections, Michael Dubin’s United States Congressional Elections, and Kenneth Martis’s Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.

Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Pro-Administration
Anti-Administration
Other
Del./Res.
1st (1789-1791)
65
37
28
0
0/0
2nd (1791-1793)
69
39
30
0
0/0
3rd (1793-1795)
106
51
54
0
1/0
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Federalists
Jeffersonian Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
4th (1795-1797)
106
47
59
0
1/0
5th (1797-1799)
106
57
49
0
0/0
6th (1799-1801)
106
60
46
0
1/0
7th (1801-1803)
106
38
68
0
2/0
8th (1803-1805)
142
39
103
0
1/0
9th (1805-1807)
142
28
114
0
3/0
10th (1807-1809)
142
26
116
0
3/0
11th (1809-1811)
142
50
92
0
3/0
12th (1811-1813)
143
36
107
0
5/0
13th (1813-1815)
182
68
114
0
4/0
14th (1815-1817)
183
64
119
0
4/0
15th (1817-1819)
185
39
146
0
4/0
16th (1819-1821)
186
26
160
0
4/0
17th (1821-1823)
187
32
155
0
4/0
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Adams-Clay Republicans
Jackson Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
18th (1823-1825)
213
72
64
Crawford Republicans (53),
Adams-Clay Federalists (15),
Jackson Federalists (7),
Crawford Federalists (2)
3/0
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Adams
Jacksons
Other
Del./Res.
19th (1825-1827)
213
109
104
0
3/0
20th (1827-1829)
213
100
113
0
3/0
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Anti-Jacksons
Jacksons
Other
Del./Res.
21st (1829-1831)
213
72
136
Anti-Masonics (5)
3/0
22nd (1831-1833)
213
66
126
Anti-Masonics (17),
Nullifiers (4)
3/0
23rd (1833-1835)
240
63
143
Anti-Masonics (25),
Nullifiers (9)
3/0
24th (1835-1837)
242
75
143
Anti-Masonics (16),
Nullifiers (8)
4/0
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Whigs
Other
Del./Res.
25th (1837-1839)
242
128
100
Anti-Masonics (7),
Nullifiers (6),
Independent (1)
3/0
26th (1839-1841)
242
125
109
Anti-Masonics (6),
Conservatives (2)
3/0
27th (1841-1843)
242
98
142
Independent (1),
Independent Democrat (1)
3/0
28th (1843-1845)
223
147
72
Law and Order (2),
Independent Democrat (1),
Independent Whig (1)
3/0
29th (1845-1847)
228
142
79
American (6)
2/0
30th (1847-1849)
230
110
116
Independent Democrats (2),
American (1),
Independent (1)
1/0
31st (1849-1851)
233
113
108
Free Soilers (9),
American (1),
Independent (1)
2/0
32nd (1851-1853)
233
127
85
Unionists (10),
Free Soilers (4),
Independent Democrats (3),
States Rights (3),
Independent Whig (1)
4/0
33rd (1853-1855)
234
157
71
Free Soilers (4),
Independent (1),
Independent Democrat (1)
7/0
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Oppositions
Other
Del./Res.
34th (1855-1857)
234
83
100
Americans (51)
7/0
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
35th (1857-1859)
237
132
90
Americans (14),
Independent Democrat (1)
7/0
36th (1859-1861)
238
83
116
Opposition (19),
Anti-Lecompton Democrats (8),
Independent Democrats (7),
Americans (5)
5/0
37th (1861-1863)
183
44
108
Unionists (26),
Constitutional Unionists (2),
Unions (2),
Independent Democrat (1)
7/0
38th (1863-1865)
184
72
85
Unconditional Unionists (16),
Unionists (9),
Independent Republicans (2)
10/0
39th (1865-1867)
193
38
136
Unconditional Unionists (13),
Unionists (5),
Independent Republican (1)
9/0
40th (1867-1869)
226
47
173
Conservatives (2),
Conservative Republican (1),
Independent Republican (1)
8/0
41st (1869-1871)
243
67
171
Conservatives (5)
9/0
42nd (1871-1873)
243
104
136
Liberal Republicans (2),
Independent Republican (1)
10/0
43rd (1873-1875)
292
88
199
Liberal Republicans (4),
Independent Democrat (1)
10/0
44th (1875-1877)
293
182
103
Independents (4),
Independent Republicans (3),
Independent Democrat (1)
9/0
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
45th (1877-1879)
293
155
136
Independent Democrats (2)
8/0
46th (1879-1881)
293
141
132
Nationals (13),
Independent Democrats (7)
8/0
47th (1881-1883)
293
128
151
Nationals (10),
Readjuster Democrats (2),
Independent (1),
Independent Democrat (1)
8/0
48th (1883-1885)
325
196
117
Readjusters (4),
Independent Democrats (3),
Independents (2),
Nationals (2),
Independent Republican (1)
8/0
49th (1885-1887)
325
182
141
Independent Democrat (1),
National (1)
8/0
50th (1887-1889)
325
167
152
Independent Republicans (2),
Labors (2),
Independent (1),
National (1)
8/0
51st (1889-1891)
332
152
179
Labor (1)
9/0
52nd (1891-1893)
332
238
86
Populists (8)
4/0
53rd (1893-1895)
356
218
124
Populists (11),
Independent Democrats (2),
Silver (1)
4/0
54th (1895-1897)
357
93
254
Populists (9),
Silver (1)
4/0
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
55th (1897-1899)
357
124
206
Populists (22),
Silver Republicans (3),
Independent Republican (1),
Silver (1)
3/0
56th (1899-1901)
357
161
187
Populists (5),
Silver Republicans (2),
Independent Populist (1),
Silver (1)
4/0
57th (1901-1903)
357
151
200
Populists (5),
Silver Republican (1)
4/1
58th (1903-1905)
386
176
207
Independent Republicans (3)
4/1
59th (1905-1907)
386
135
251
0
5/1
60th (1907-1909)
391
167
223
Independent Republican (1)
5/1
61st (1909-1911)
391
172
219
0
4/3
62nd (1911-1913)
394
230
162
Progressive Republican (1),
Socialist (1)
4/3
63rd (1913-1915)
435
291
134
Progressives (9),
Independent (1)
2/3
64th (1915-1917)
435
230
196
Progressive (6),
Independent (1),
Prohibitionist (1),
Socialist (1)
2/3
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
65th (1917-1919)
435
214
215
Progressives (3),
Independent Republican (1),
Prohibitionist (1),
Socialist (1)
2/3
66th (1919-1921)
435
192
240
Prohibitionist (1),
Union-Labor (1)
2/3
67th (1921-1923)
435
131
302
Independent Republican (1),
Socialist (1)
2/3
68th (1923-1925)
435
207
225
Farmer-Labor (2),
Socialist (1)
2/3
69th (1925-1927)
435
183
247
Farmer-Labor (3),
American-Labor (1),
Socialist (1)
2/3
70th (1927-1929)
435
194
238
Farmer-Labor (2),
Socialist (1)
2/3
71st (1929-1931)
435
164
270
Farmer-Labor (1)
2/3
72nd (1931-1933)1
435
216
218
Farmer-Labor (1)
2/3
73rd (1933-1935)
435
313
117
Farmer-Labor (5)
2/3
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
74th (1935–1937)
435
321
104
Progressives (7),
Farmer-Labor (3)
2/3
75th (1937–1939)
435
334
88
Progressives (8),
Farmer-Labor (5)
2/2
76th (1939–1941)
435
262
169
Progressives (2),
Farmer-Labor (1),
American Labor (1)
2/2
77th (1941–1943)
435
267
162
Progressives (3),
Farmer-Labor (1),
American Labor (1),
Independent Democrat (1)
2/2
78th (1943–1945)
435
222
209
Progressives (2),
Farmer-Labor (1),
American Labor (1)
2/2
79th (1945–1947)
435
244
189
Progressives (1),
American Labor (1)
2/2
80th (1947–1949)
435
188
246
American Labor (1)
2/1
81st (1949–1951)
435
263
171
American Labor (1)
2/1
82nd (1951–1953)
435
235
199
Independent (1)
2/1
83rd (1953–1955)
435
213
221
Independent (1)
2/1
84th (1955–1957)
435
232
203
0
2/1
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
85th (1957–1959)
435
232
203
0
2/1
86th (1959–1961)
435
283
151
Independent Democrat (1)
0/1
87th (1961–1963)
437
264
173
0
0/1
88th (1963–1965)
435
260
175
0
0/1
89th (1965–1967)
435
295
140
0
0/1
90th (1967–1969)
435
248
187
0
0/1
91st (1969–1971)
435
243
192
0
0/1
92nd (1971–1973)
435
256
179
0
1/1
93rd (1973–1975)
435
243
192
0
3/1
94th (1975–1977)
435
292
143
0
3/1
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
95th (1977–1979)
435
292
143
0
3/1
96th (1979–1981)
435
279
156
0
3/1
97th (1981–1983)
435
243
192
0
4/1
98th (1983–1985)
435
270
165
0
4/1
99th (1985–1987)
435
255
180
0
4/1
100th (1987–1989)
435
259
176
0
4/1
101st (1989–1991)
435
262
173
0
4/1
102nd (1991–1993)
435
267
167
Independent (1)
4/1
103rd (1993–1995)
435
258
176
Independent (1)
4/1
104th (1995–1997)
435
206
228
Independent (1)
4/1
Congress (Years)
# of House Seats
Democrats
Republicans
Other
Del./Res.
105th (1997–1999)
435
207
226
Independent (2)
4/1
106th (1999–2001)
435
211
223
Independent (1)
4/1
107th (2001–2003)
435
213
220
Independent (2)
4/1
108th (2003–2005)
435
205
229
Independent (1)
4/1
109th (2005–2007)
435
201
233
Independent (1)
4/1
110th (2007–2009)
435
233
202
0
4/1
111th (2009–2011)
435
257
178
0
5/1
112th (2011–2013)
435
193
242
0
5/1
113th (2013–2015)
435
201
234
0
5/1

Footnotes

*Party division totals are based on November election day results. The actual party division of a particular Congress often changes due to the death or resignation of a Member, contested elections, or changes in Member party affiliations.

1Before the first day of Congress, 14 Representatives-elect died. The results of the special elections caused party control of the House to change, and Democrats organized with the majority of the House seats.