FULBRIGHT, James William

1905–1995

Biography

FULBRIGHT, James William, a Representative and a Senator from Arkansas; born in Sumner, Chariton County, Mo., April 9, 1905; moved with his parents to Fayetteville, Ark., in 1906; attended the primary and secondary education teachers' training schools of the University of Arkansas grades 1 through 12; graduated from the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville in 1925, as a Rhodes scholar from Oxford University, England, in 1928, and from the law department of George Washington University, Washington, D.C., in 1934; admitted to the District of Columbia bar in 1934; attorney, United States Department of Justice, Antitrust Division 1934-1935; instructor in law, George Washington University 1935, and lecturer in law, University of Arkansas 1936-1939; president of the University of Arkansas 1939-1941; also engaged in the newspaper business, in the lumber business, in banking, and in farming; elected as a Democrat to the Seventy-eighth Congress (January 3, 1943-January 3, 1945); was not a candidate for renomination in 1944; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1944; reelected in 1950, 1956, 1962, and again in 1968, and served from January 3, 1945, until his resignation December 31, 1974; unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1974; chairman, Committee on Banking and Currency (Eighty-fourth through Eighty-sixth Congresses), Committee on Foreign Relations (Eighty-sixth through Ninety-third Congresses); counsel to the law firm of Hogan and Hartson, Washington, D.C., until 1993; awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom on May 5, 1993; was a resident of Washington, D.C., until his death, February 9, 1995; cremated, ashes interred in Fulbright family plot, Evergreen Cemetery, Fayetteville, Ark.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

Alabama Department of Archives and History

Montgomery, AL
Papers: In Clifford J. Durr papers, 1899-1976.

Amherst College

Amherst, MA
Papers: In the Henry Steele Commager Papers, 1920-1998.

Arkansas History Commission

Little Rock, AR
Papers: 1944 June 12. Letter to John Dale Thewatt regarding Fulbright's U.S.Senate campaign and 1956 April 7 letter to W. J. Lemke.

Boise State University Library

Boise, ID
Papers: In Frank Church papers, 1941-1984. Finding aid.

Broadcast Pioneers Library
University of Maryland Hornbake Library

College Park, MD
Papers: 26 audiotapes (1963-1974) in Westinghouse Broadcasting Company collection, 1945-1981.

Clemson University
Special Collections

Clemson, SC
Papers: Correspondence in Hugh B. Hester papers, 1945-1983 (bulk 1968-1983).

Columbia University
Oral History Project

New York, NY
Oral History: 1957. 128 leaves. Reminiscences of childhood and education, Oxford University, Washington, DC, the House of Representatives, and the U. S. Senate. Permission required to cite, quote, and reproduce.
Oral History: 1982. 210 leaves. Reminiscences. Closed.

Columbia University
Rare Book and Manuscript Library

New York, NY
Papers: In the Lenore Marshall papers, 1887-1980; Randolph Godfrey Phillips papers, 1956-1982; Harold Matson Company, Inc. records, 1937-1980; Lawyers Committee on American Policy Towards Vietnam records, 1962-1979; Frederick Cole Smedley papers, 1956-1976; and Calvin Sutliff Hathaway papers, 1941-1954.

Dakota State University
Karl E. Mundt Library

Madison, SD
Oral History: August 1, 1972. 7 pages.

Duke University
Special Collections Library

Durham, NC
Oral History: . Interview and transcript in the Duke University Living History Program records, 1974-2005.

Harvard University
Pusey Library

Cambridge, MA
Papers: In Elmer Rice letters received, 1915-1967.

Institute for International Education Library

New York, NY
Papers: Information on the Fulbright scholar grants for graduate students program in Institute for International Education annual reports, 1919-ongoing. Appointment advised.

John F. Kennedy Library

Boston, MA
Oral History: 1964. 163 pages.
Oral History: 6 pages. Concerns Anglo-American relations.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Oral History: March 5, 1979. 34 pages. Association of Former Members of Congress.
Oral History: Reminiscences, 1957, 128 leaves, Dean Albertson interviewer; and reminiscences, 1982, 210 leaves, Ed Edwin interviewer.

Memphis State University Library
Mississippi Valley Collection

Memphis, TN
Papers: Correspondence in Charlie May Hogue Simon papers, 1933-1967. Finding aid.

Mississippi State University
Mitchell Memorial Library

Mississippi State, MS
Papers: 1948-1949. 3 letters.

Pennsylvania State University
Historical Collections and Labor Archives

University Park, PA
Papers: Films and scripts of television broadcasts of "Your Senator's Report," 1960-1967, hosted by various senators including Fulbright.

Princeton University
Dulles Oral History Project

Princeton, NJ
Oral History: 1966. 27 pages. Restricted.

Radcliffe College
Schlesinger Library

Cambridge, MA
Papers: In Dorothy F. Rodgers papers, 1922-1987; and Lucile Heming Koshland papers, 1947-1974.

State Historical Society of Wisconsin
Archives Division

Madison, WI
Papers: In Alexander Wiley papers, 1913-1967; William Proxmire papers, 1945-1988, restricted; David Schoenbrun papers, 1963-1978; John B. Oakes papers, 1932-1969; Robert Lasch papers, 1940-1991; Joseph Close Harsch papers, 1928-1988; and Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sorbell records, 1946-1969.

Swarthmore College
Peace Collection

Swarthmore, PA
Papers: Correspondence in Another Mother for Peace Association records, 1964-1985 (bulk 1967-1977).

Syracuse University
George Arents Research Library

Syracuse, NY
Papers: In Harold Weston papers, 1916-1971; and John Shirley Wood papers, 1917-1967.

U.S. Senate
Historical Office

Washington, DC
Oral History: Discussed in interviews (September-December 1980) with Pat M. Holt, chief of staff, Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 311 pages; and Carl M. Marcy, (September-November 1983), chief of staff, Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 284 pages.

University of Arkansas
Special Collections

Fayetteville, AR
Papers: 1941-1995. 1,400 linear feet. Official, personal, and constituent correspondence, memoranda, legislative bills, speeches, and other papers relating to Joseph R. McCarthy, International Education Exchange program, election campaigns, Democratic party, political activities and issues in Arkansas and the nation, patronage appointments and federally funded programs in Arkansas, foreign relations and military affairs, banking and currency issues, congressional legislation and committee work, and relations with executive agencies and constituents. Includes files on personal and family activities. Finding aid. Access to some files is restricted.
Additional Papers: Correspondence in Walter John Lemke papers, 1891-1968; Arthur Brann Caldwell papers, 1912-1975; information on international exchange programs, including the Fulbright program, in Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs historical collection, 1938-1983, 500 linear feet; information on the Fulbright and Fulbright-Hays exchange programs in Council for International Exchange of Scholars records, 1947-1993, 200 linear feet; and in National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Association of International Educators records, 1948-1990, 200 linear feet. Finding aid.

University of Georgia
Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies

Athens, GA
Oral History: 1971. 11 pages. Limited to reminiscences of Russell.

University of Oklahoma
Political Commercial Archive

Norman, OK
Papers: 1968-1974. 38 commercials used during Fulbright's campaigns for the 1968 and 1974 U.S. senatorial campaigns in Arkansas.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library

Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: Correspondence in Stella Brunt Osborn papers, 1916-1983; George Murphy papers, 1911-1961; and Blair Moody papers, 1928-1954. Finding aid.

University of Virginia
Alderman Library

Charlottesville, VA
Papers: In Hugh Scott papers, 1925-1983; Louis Joseph Halle papers, 1915-1987; and American Veterans Committee of Massachusetts correspondence, 1963-1970. Finding aid.

University of Wyoming
American Heritage Center

Laramie, WY
Papers: Correspondence in Morgan Beatty papers, 1922-1973. Finding aid.

Wayne State University
Walter P. Reuther Library

Detroit, MI
Papers: Correspondence in International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, International Affairs Department records, 1955-1963. Finding aid.

Winthrop College Library

Rock Hill, SC
Papers: Correspondence in Marion Allen Wright papers, 1924-1978. Finding aid.

Yale University Libraries
Manuscripts and Archives

New Haven, CT
Papers: In Max Lerner papers, 1927-1980; Ogden Rogers Reid papers, 1925-1982; Dean Acheson papers, 1898-1986; John Sylvester Fischer papers, 1907-1980; and Hanson Weightman Baldwin papers, 1929-1988.
Research Libraries Information Network In addition to the institutions listed above, items are also cataloged in collections at: Cornell University Libraries, Ithaca, NY; New York University Tamiment Institute Library, New York, NY; and University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City, IA.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Ambrosius, Lloyd E. "The Goldwater-Fulbright Controversy." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 29 (Autumn 1970): 252-70.

Anderson, Joel E., Jr. "The Fulbright Strategy: A Critique." Master's thesis, American University, 1966.

Austin, Betty, comp. J. William Fulbright: A Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Becnel, Thomas A. "Fulbright of Arkansas v. Ellender of Louisiana: The Politics of Sugar and Rice, 1937-1974." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 43 (Winter 1984): 289-303.

Berman, William C. William Fulbright and the Vietnam War: The Dissent of a Political Realist. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1988.

Bibby, John F. "The Congressional Committee: The Politics of the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs." In On Capitol Hill: Studies of the Legislative Process, by John F. Bibby and Roger H. Davidson, pp. 183-206. 1967. 2d ed. Hinsdale, IL: Dryden Press, 1972.

Bradshaw, Leonard Lee. "The Rhetoric of J. William Fulbright: Dissent in Crisis." Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 1970.

Brown, Eugene. J. William Fulbright: Advice and Dissent. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1985.

Bullert, Gary Byron, and Francis Michael Casey. "The Foreign Policy of Senator William J. Fulbright: From Cold War Warrior to Neo-Isolationist." Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 8 (Winter 1983): 449-69.

Burnett, John H. "J.W. Fulbright, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 20 (Winter 1961): 318-30.

Coffin, Tristram. Senator Fulbright: Portrait of a Public Philosopher. New York: E.P. Dutton Co., 1966.

Cone, Stacey. "Pulling the Plug on America's Propaganda: Sen. J. W. Fulbright's Leadership of the Antipropaganda Movement, 1943-1974." Journalism History 30 (Winter 2005): 166-176.

Down, Calvin W. "A Thematic Analysis of Speeches on Foreign Policy of Senator J.W. Fulbright." Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1963.

Felten, Peter G. "The Path to Dissent: Johnson, Fulbright, and the 1965 Intervention in the Dominican Republic." Presidential Studies Quarterly 26 (Fall 1996): 1009-18.

Fry, Joseph A. Debating Vietnam: Fulbright, Stennis, and Their Senate Hearings. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006.

Fulbright, J. William. "The American Experiment in Self-Government." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 63 (April 1955): 151-60.

___. "American Foreign Policy in the 20th Century Under an 18th-Century Constitution." Cornell Law Quarterly 47 (Fall 1961): 1-13.

___. The Arrogance of Power. New York: Random House, 1966.

___. "For a Concert of Free Nations." Foreign Affairs 40 (October 1961): 1-18.

___. "Congress and Foreign Policy." In Congress and the President: Allies and Adversaries, edited by Ronald C. Moe, pp. 197-209. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear Publishing Co., 1971.

___. "Congress, the President and the War Power." Arkansas Law Review 25 (Spring 1971): 71-84.

___. "Congressional Investigations: Significance for the Legislative Process." University of Chicago Law Review 18 (Spring 1951): 440-48.

___. The Crippled Giant: American Foreign Policy and its Domestic Consequences. New York: Random House, 1972.

___. "Education in International Relations." Colorado Quarterly 15 (Winter 1966): 209-16.

___. "The First Fifteen Years of the Fulbright Program." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 335 (May 1961): 21-27.

___. "Fulbright on the Press." Columbia Journalism Review 14 (November/December 1975): 39-45.

___. "Fulbright's Role in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Inter-American Economic Affairs 27 (Spring 1974): 86-94.

___. "The Johnson Presidency and Vietnam." In The Johnson Presidency: Twenty Intimate Perspectives of Lyndon B. Johnson, edited by Kenneth W. Thompson, pp. 237-48. Portraits of American Presidents, vol. 5. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986.

___. "The Legislator as Educator." Foreign Affairs 57 (Spring 1979): 719-32.

___. "The Most Significant and Important Activity I Have Been Privileged to Engage in During My Years in the Senate." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 424 (March 1976): 1-5.

___. Old Myths and New Realities, and Other Commentaries. New York: Random House, 1964.

___. The Pentagon Propaganda Machine. New York: Liveright Publishing Corp., 1970.

___. Prospects for the West. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.

___. "A United States of Europe?" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 257 (May 1948): 151-56.

Fulbright, James William, with Seth P. Tillman. The Price of the Empire. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989.

Gunn, Herb. "The Continuing Friendship of James William Fulbright and Ronald Buchanan McCallum." South Atlantic Quarterly 83 (Autumn 1984): 416-33.

Jeffrey, Harry P. "Legislative Origins of the Fulbright Program." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 491 (May 1987): 36-47.

Johnson, Haynes, and Bernard M. Gwertzman. Fulbright: The Dissenter. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Co., 1968.

Johnson, Willie Stephen. "The Bumpers-Fulbright Senate Race: A Rhetorical Analysis." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1981.

Lynn, Naomi B., and Arthur F. McClure. The Fulbright Premise: Senator J. William Fulbright's Views on Presidential Power. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1973.

Manske, Robert Fred. "The Fulbright Foreign Policy Thought, 1964-1971: A Co-Organic Critique." Ph.D. dissertation, American University, 1973.

Meyer, Karl E., ed. Fulbright of Arkansas: The Public Positions of a Private Thinker. Washington: Robert B. Luce, 1963.

O'Grady, Joseph Patrick. "J.W. Fulbright and the Fulbright Program in Ireland." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 47 (Spring 1988): 47-69.

Paris, Carol Ann. "Senator J.W. Fulbright and American Foreign Policy, 1943-1949." Master's thesis, Southern Methodist University, 1970.

Perry, Bruce. "Senator J. William Fulbright on European and Atlantic Unity." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1968.

Powell, Lee Riley. J. William Fulbright and America's Lost Crusade: Fulbright's Opposition to the Vietnam War. Little Rock: Rose Publishing Co., 1984.

___. J. William Fulbright and His Time: A Political Biography. Memphis, Tenn.: Guild Bindery Press, 1996.

Scott, Frank H. "Major Contributions and Opinions of J. William Fulbright in the Field of American Foreign Policy, 1943 to 1964." Master's thesis, Kansas State College of Pittsburgh, 1964.

Smith, Harold T. "J. William Fulbright and the Arkansas 1974 Senatorial Election." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 44 (Summer 1985): 103-17.

Stennis, John C., and J. William Fulbright. The Role of Congress In Foreign Policy. American Enterprise Institute Rational Debate Seminars. Washington: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1971.

Tobler, Judith Ann. "The Education of a Legislator: The Evolution of J. William Fulbright's Attitudes Toward the Soviet Union." Master's thesis, University of Arkansas, 1983.

Trask, David F. "The Congress as Classroom: J. William Fulbright and the Crisis of American Power." In Makers of American Diplomacy: From Benjamin Franklin to Henry Kissinger, edited by Frank J. Merli and Theodore A. Wilson, pp. 649-75. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974.

Truslow, Marion A., Jr. "A Discussion and Analysis of J. William Fulbright's Political Thought." Master's thesis, Vanderbilt University, 1969.

Tweraser, Kurt K. Changing Patterns of Political Beliefs: The Foreign Policy Operational Codes of J. William Fulbright, 1943-1967. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1974.

___. "J. William Fulbright--Belief Systems, Models of Representation and Re-election Strategies, 1942-1962." Arkansas Political Science Journal 6 (Winter 1985): 55-70.

Williams, Nancy A., ed. Arkansas Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000: 113-114.

Woods, Randall Bennett. "Dixie's Dove: J. William Fulbright, the Vietnam War, and the American South." Journal of Southern History 60 (August 1994): 533-52.

___. Fulbright: A Biography. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

___. "Fulbright Internationalism." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 491 (May 1987): 22-35.

___. J. William Fulbright, Vietnam, and the Search for a Cold War Foreign Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

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