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MORRILL, Justin Smith



MORRILL, Justin Smith, a Representative and a Senator from Vermont; born in Strafford, Orange County, Vt., April 14, 1810; attended the common schools and Thetford and Randolph Academies; a merchant's clerk in Strafford 1825-1828 and in Portland, Maine, 1828-1831; merchant in Strafford 1831-1848; engaged in agriculture and horticulture 1848-1855; elected as a Whig to the Thirty-fourth Congress and as a Republican to the five succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1855-March 3, 1867), when he became Senator; author of the Tariff Act of 1861 and of the land-grant bill, which bears his name; chairman, Committee on Ways and Means (Thirty-ninth Congress); elected as a Union Republican to the United States Senate in 1866; reelected as a Republican in 1872, 1878, 1884, 1890 and 1896 and served from March 4, 1867, until his death; chairman, Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds (Forty-first through Forty-fourth Congresses), Committee on Finance (Forty-fifth, Forty-seventh through Fifty-second, Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Congresses); regent of the Smithsonian Institution 1883-1898; trustee of the University of Vermont 1865-1898; died in Washington, D.C., December 28, 1898; interment in the City Cemetery, Strafford, Vt.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

Boston Public Library

Boston, MA
Papers: 2 items.

Brown University

Providence, RI
Papers: [Ca. 1842]. 5 items. Four poems and an essay on poetry.

Cornell University
Rare Books and Manuscript Collections

Ithaca, NY
Papers: 1814-1937, 1982. 3.3 cubic feet. Correspondence, speeches, and printed material on Civil War and Reconstruction, the status of freed blacks, the tariff and international trade, passage of the Land Grant College Act; scrapbooks; photographs; and memorabilia. Finding aid.
Additional Papers: In Horace Mack papers, 1815-1888; and Andrew Dickson White papers, 1832-1919, available on 149 microfilm reels.

Harvard University
Graduate School of Business Administration Baker Library

Boston, MA
Papers: 1867-1897. .5 linear foot. Correspondence, reports, and circulars chiefly concerning the tariff.

Harvard University
Houghton Library

Cambridge, MA
Papers: 1810-1898. 13 items.

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: Correspondence (1893) in James Moore Swank papers, 1785-1898 (bulk 1871-1898).

Indiana Historical Society

Indianapolis, IN
Papers: In Albert Gallatin Porter collection, 1759-1942.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Papers: 1825-1923. 22 linear feet. Correspondence, speeches, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, and printed matter covering his legislative career and relating to the Morrill tariff act of 1861, Land Grant College acts, and his position on many controversial post-Civil War issues. Includes the manuscript of his Wanderings and scribblings (1841). Available on 52 microfilm reels. Finding aid.

Massachusetts Historical Society

Boston, MA
Papers: 29 items (1851-1898) in various collections including Swan family papers, 1816-1929.

New-York Historical Society

New York, NY
Papers: 1862-1897. 8 letters. Finding aid.

New York State Library
Manuscripts and Special Collections

Albany, NY
Papers: In Edwin Denison Morgan papers, 1836-1883.

Pennsylvania State University Libraries
Special Collections

University Park, PA
Papers: Correspondence in George Washington Atherton papers, 1837-1950. Finding aid.

Pierpont Morgan Library

New York, NY
Papers: 1869-1880. 2 items.

Strafford Historical Society

Strafford, VT
Papers: 1828-1898 (bulk 1855-1898). 150 items. Correspondence, congressional bills, speeches, notes, clippings, pamphlets, and personal papers. Papers relate to his interest in the tariff, in buildings and grounds in Washington, DC, and in the land-grant colleges. Finding aid.

Syracuse University
George Arents Research Library

Syracuse, NY
Papers: 1837-1871. Ca. 50 items. Correspondence and speeches. Finding aid.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library

Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: In James Burrill Angell papers, 1845-1916.

University of Rhode Island
Special Collections

Kingston, RI
Papers: Printed material in Carl Woodward papers, 1800-1974.

University of Rochester
Rush Rhees Library

Rochester, NY
Papers: 1 letter by and 2 to Morrill (1861-1867) in various collections. Finding aid.

University of Vermont
Bailey/Howe Library

Burlington, VT
Papers: 1810-1898. 22 feet. Personal and business papers, congressional correspondence, letters from Charles Marsh, photographs, and memorabilia. Chiefly copies of originals in the Library of Congress. Finding aid. Restricted.
Additional Papers: Correspondence in George Perkins Marsh papers, 1812-1929. Finding aid.

U.S. Capitol
Office of the Architect

Washington, DC
Papers: In records and documents relating to the Capitol building and grounds and to the Joint Committee on the Library.

University of Iowa Libraries
Special Collections Department

Iowa City, IA
Papers: 1872-1873. 2 letters. From J.N. Denison concerning Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company.

Vermont Historical Society

Montpelier, VT
Papers: 1828-1896. 270 items. Correspondence, speeches, essays, account books, and portraits. Also correspondence in the Solomon Foot papers.

Yale University Libraries
Manuscripts and Archives

New Haven, CT
Papers: In Daniel Coit Gilman papers, 1845-1910.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Atherton, George Washington. The Legislative Career of Justin Smith Morrill: An Address Delivered at New Haven, Connecticut, November 14, 1900. Harrisburg, PA: J. Horace McFarland Co., 1900.

Florer, John H. "Major Issues in the Congressional Debate of the Morrill Act of 1862." History of Education Quarterly 8 (Winter 1968): 459-78.

Cross, Coy F. Justin Smith Morrill: Father of the Land Grant Colleges. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1999.

Hoyer, Randal Leigh. "The Gentleman from Vermont: The Career of Justin S. Morrill in the United States House of Representatives." Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1974.

Hills, Joseph L. "Justin Smith Morrill." Vermonters: A Book of Biographies. Brattleboro: Stephen Daye Press, 1931, pp. 162-165.

Merrill, George D. "Jonathan Turner or Justin Morrill: A New Look at the Authorship of the Land Grant Act of 1862." Vermont History 36 (Autumn 1968): 204-9.

Morrill, Justin S. Self-Consciousness of Noted Persons. 1882. Reprint. Boston: Ticknor & Co., 1887.

Parker, William Belmont. The Life and Public Services of Justin Smith Morrill. 1924. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.

U.S. Congress. Memorial Addresses on the Life and Character of Justin S. Morrill (Late a Senator from Vermont). 55th Cong., 3d sess., 1898-1899. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899.

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Committee Assignments

  • House Committee - Ways and Means - Chair
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