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HOUSTON, Samuel, (Father of Andrew Jackson Houston and cousin of David Hubbard), a Representative from Tennessee and a Senator from Texas; born at Timber Ridge Church, near Lexington, Va., March 2, 1793; moved about 1808 with his widowed mother to Blount County, Tenn.; attended Maryville Academy (now Maryville College), Maryville, Tenn.; employed as a clerk in a store in Kingston, Tenn.; enlisted as a private in the United States Infantry 1813; served under General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War, rose to lieutenant, and resigned from the Army in 1818; studied law, admitted to the bar in 1818, and commenced practice in Lebanon, Tenn.; district attorney in 1819; adjutant general of the State 1820; major general 1821; elected to the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Congresses (March 4, 1823-March 3, 1827); Governor of Tennessee 1827-1829, when he resigned; found in contempt of Congress by the U.S. House of Representatives on May 11, 1832, for his assault upon Representative William Stanbery of Ohio; moved to the territory of the Cherokee Nation, now a part of Oklahoma, was a trader, and was made a member of the Cherokee Nation by action of the National Council; moved to Texas around 1835 and was a member of the convention at San Felipe de Austin, the purpose of which was to establish separate statehood for Texas; member of the constitutional convention in 1835; commander in chief of the Texas Army; successfully led the Texans against the Mexicans in the Battle of San Jacinto in April 1836; first President of the Republic of Texas 1836-1838; member, Texas Congress 1838-1840; again President of the Republic 1841-1844; upon the admission of Texas as a State into the Union was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate; reelected in 1847 and 1853 and served from February 21, 1846, to March 3, 1859; chairman, Committee on Militia (Thirty-first through Thirty-fourth Congresses); Governor of Texas 1859-1861; deposed March 18, 1861, because he refused to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederate States; died in Huntsville, Tex., July 26, 1863; interment in Oakwood Cemetery.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

Alabama Department of Archives and History

Montgomery, AL
Papers: In Jeremiah Clemens letters, 1842-1860.

Baylor University

Waco, TX
Papers: 1830-1860. 50 items.

Boston Public Library

Boston, MA
Papers: 3 letters.

Brigham Young University
Special Collections

Provo, UT
Papers: 1855, 1859. 2 letters.

Brooklyn Historical Society

Brooklyn, NY
Papers: January 4, 1859. 1 letter.

Clermont State Historic Site

Germantown, NY
Papers: In Livingston family miscellaneous papers, 1678-1959.

Dallas Historical Society

Dallas, TX
Papers: Miscellaneous items, most not from his Senate years.

Daughters of the Republic of Texas

San Antonio, TX
Papers: 1 small document box. Personal and business papers, originals and copies.

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: In William W. Porter papers, 1770-1880; and Lewis S. Coryell correspondence, 1806-1867.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Papers: 1823-1859. 24 items.

New Hampshire Historical Society

Concord, NH
Papers: Correspondence in U.S. Army Pay Department Records, 1791-1870.

New York Public Library

New York, NY
Papers: 1828-1860. 26 items.

Oneida Historical Society

Utica, NY
Papers: 1855. 1 letter. From Salmon P. Chase.

Pierpont Morgan Library

New York, NY
Papers: 1840. 1 item.

Princeton University
Seeley G. Mudd Library

Princeton, NJ
Papers: Ca. 10 letters (1838-1861) in Robert Caldwell collection.

R.W. Norton Art Gallery

Shreveport, LA
Papers: A few miscellaneous letters.

Rhode Island Historical Society

Providence, RI
Papers: Correspondence in Alva Woods papers, 1816-1900.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

Hyde Park, NY
Papers: In Franklin D. Roosevelt historical manuscripts collection, 1636-1935.

Rosenbach Museum and Library

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: July 24, 1843, January 26, 1853. 2 letters.

Sam Houston Memorial Museum

Huntsville, TX
Papers: 2 feet of personal correspondence (1839-1863) of Sam Houston and his wife Margaret in the Franklin Williams collection.

Stephen F. Austin State University
Ralph W. Steen Library

Nacogdoches, TX
Papers: 1827-1975. 181 items. In part, transcripts and photocopies. Correspondence, legal documents, and biographical and genealogical material.
Additional Papers: Correspondence in Robert Bruce Blake papers, 1791-1938; Marmion Henry Bowers letterbooks, 1857-1867; and research material in Lois Fitzhugh Foster Blount papers, 1750-1980.

Texas State Library
Archives Division

Austin, TX
Papers: 2 feet. Gubernatorial papers.
Additional Papers: 1 folder of photocopies of letters from Jackson to Houston in Andrew Jackson papers, 1825-1844, originals privately owned; and correspondence in Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar papers, 1806-1941.

Texas Tech University
Southwest Collection

Lubbock, TX
Papers: In Samuel Houston family papers, 1836-1939 (bulk 1856-1865). 55 items. Correspondence, financial papers, poems, reminiscences, and clippings, written by or about Houston.

University of Rochester
Rush Rhees Library

Rochester, NY
Papers: 3 letters (1854-1860) in various collections. Finding aid.

University of Texas
Center for American History

Austin, TX
Papers: In Samuel Houston family papers, 1814-1937. Ca. 7 feet. In part transcripts and photocopies. Correspondence, speeches, legal papers, financial papers, military orders, scrapbook, clippings, and other papers relating to politics, military affairs, family, social and religious matters. Topics include Texas independence, efforts toward diplomatic recognition for the Republic, support of the Compromise of 1850, and Unionist sympathies and opposition to secession. Finding aid.

University of Virginia
Alderman Library

Charlottesville, VA
Papers: Correspondence in various collections. Finding aid.

Virginia State Library and Archives

Richmond, VA
Papers: In Washington and Lee University manuscript collection, 1777-1869.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Bergeron, Paul H. "A Test for Jacksonians: Sam Houston on Trial." East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications 38 (1966): 16-29.

Braider, Donald. Solitary Star: A Biography of Sam Houston. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1974.

Campbell, Randolph B. Sam Houston and the American Southwest. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007 (3rd ed.).

Cantrell, Gregg. "Sam Houston and the Know-Nothings: A Reappraisal." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 96 (January 1993): 327-43.

Corn, James F. "Sam Houston: The Raven." Journal of Cherokee Studies 6 (Spring 1981): 34-49.

Creel, George. Sam Houston, Colossus in Buckskin. New York: Cosmopolitan Book Corp., 1928.

Crouch, Barry A. " 'Magnificent Barbarian': Sam Houston Revisited." Houston Review 15 (1993): 3-30.

Daniels, John David. "The Political Philosophy of Sam Houston." Master's thesis, University of North Texas, 1990.

Day, Donald, and Harry Herbert Ullom, eds. The Autobiography of Sam Houston. 1954. Reprint. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980.

De Bruhl, Marshall. Sword of San Jacinto: A Life of Sam Houston. New York: Random House, 1993.

Elliot, Sarah Barnwell. Sam Houston. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1900.

Frantz, Joe B. "Texas Giant of Contradictions: Sam Houston." American West 17 (July/August 1980): 4-12, 61-65.

Friend, Llerena. Sam Houston, the Great Designer. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1954.

Haley, James. Sam Houston. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002.

Hopewell, Clifford. Sam Houston: Man of Destiny: A Biography. Austin: Eakin Press, 1987.

Houston, Sam. Ever Thine Truly: Love Letters from Sam Houston to Anna Raguet. Austin: Jenkins Garrett Press, 1975.

James, Marquis. The Raven: A Biography of Sam Houston. 1929. Reprint. Atlanta: Cherokee Publishing Co., 1991.

Kennedy, John F. "Sam Houston." In Profiles in Courage, pp. 100-117. 1956. Reprint. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1961.

Kreneck, Thomas H. "Sam Houston and the Jacksonian Frontier Personality." Houston Review 8 (1986): 105-34.

___. "Sam Houston's Quest For Personal Harmony: An Interpretation." Ph.D. dissertation, Bowling Green State University, 1981.

Ratner, Lorman A. "Sam Houston: The Prodigal Son." In Andrew Jackson and His Tennessee Lieutenants: A Study in Political Culture, pp. 99-107. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Roberts, Madge Thornall. Star of Destiny: The Private Life of Sam and Margaret Houston. Denton: University of North Texas Press, 1993.

___, ed. The Personal Correspondence of Sam Houston. 4 vols. to date. Denton: University of North Texas Press, 1996 - .

Seymour, Flora Warren. Sam Houston, Patriot. New York: Century Co., 1930.

Shearer, Ernest C. "The Mercurial Sam Houston." East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications 35 (1963): 3-20.

Sibley, Marilyn McAdams. "James Hamilton, Jr. vs. Sam Houston: Repercussions of the Nullification Controversy." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 89 (October 1985): 165-80.

Stenberg, Richard R. "The Texas Schemes of Jackson and Houston, 1829-1836." Social Science Quarterly 50 (March 1970): 944-65.

Van Wagenen, Michael Scott. "Sam Houston and the Utah War." Utah Historical Quarterly 76 (Winter 2008): 66-78.

Welch, June Rayfield. "Houston Was Out of Step with the South." In The Texas Senator, pp. 76-82. Dallas: G.L.A. Press, 1978.

Williams, Amelia W., and Eugene Campbell Barker, eds. The Writings of Sam Houston, 1813-1863. 8 vols. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1938-1943.

Williams, John Hoyt. Sam Houston: A Biography of the Father of Texas. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Wiltshire, Susan Ford. "Sam Houston and the Iliad." Tennessee Historical Quarterly 32 (Fall 1973): 249-54.

Winningham, Mrs. David. "Sam Houston and Slavery." Texana 3 (Summer 1965): 93-104.

Wisehart, Marion Karl. Sam Houston: American Giant. Washington: R.B. Luce, 1962.

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