GALLATIN, Albert

GALLATIN, Albert
Image courtesy of the Senate Historical Office
1761–1849

Biography

GALLATIN, Albert, a Representative and Senator-elect from Pennsylvania; born in Geneva, Switzerland, January 29, 1761; was graduated from the University of Geneva in 1779; immigrated to the United States and settled in Boston, Mass., in 1780; served in the Revolutionary Army; instructor of French in Harvard University in 1782; moved to Virginia in 1785 and settled in Fayette County (now in Pennsylvania); his estate becoming a portion of Pennsylvania, he was made a member of the Pennsylvania constitutional convention in 1789; member, State house of representatives 1790-1792; elected to the United States Senate and took the oath of office on December 2, 1793, but a petition filed with the Senate on the same date alleged that Gallatin failed to satisfy the Constitutional citizenship requirement; on February 28, 1794, the Senate determined that Gallatin did not meet the citizenship requirement, and declared his election void; elected as a Republican to the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Congresses (March 4, 1795-March 3, 1801); was not a candidate for renomination in 1800; appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Thomas Jefferson in 1801; reappointed by President James Madison, and served from 1801 to 1814; appointed one of the commissioners to negotiate the Treaty of Ghent in 1814; one of the commissioners who negotiated a commercial convention with Great Britain in 1816; appointed United States Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to France by President Madison 1815-1823; Minister Plenipotentiary to Great Britain 1826-1827; returned to New York City and became president of the National Bank of New York; died in Astoria, N.Y., August 12, 1849; interment in Nicholson Vault, Trinity Churchyard, New York City.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

New York Historical Society
Manuscript Department

New York, NY
Papers: ca. 1258-1947, 44.3 linear feet. The papers of Albert Gallatin include personal and official correspondence, wills, deeds, pamphlets, marriage certificates, wax bas-relief portraits, historical snuff boxes, medals, watercolor portraits, engravings, and other papers of Albert Gallatin and his family. Topics on Albert Gallatin's career include his early years as a Swiss immigrant, his life on the Pennsylvania frontier, his service as a Congressman from the state of Pennsylvania, his work as Secretary of the Treasury, and his later career as a diplomat. Other topics include Pennsylvania and United States politics, U.S. foreign policy and treaties, revolution in Geneva, roads and canals, land speculation, banking, tariff, Americans in Europe, Indian languages and affairs, U.S. expansion, the Northeastern boundary settlement, and the slave trade. There is also genealogical material on the Gallatin family.
Papers: ca. 1794-1952, 5.7 linear feet. The papers of Albert Gallatin include correspondence, legal documents, appointment books, address books, invitations, visiting cards, writings, clippings, accounts, wills, certificates, a genealogy, articles, minutes, ration books, and other Gallatin family papers. The papers document Albert Gallatin's work as a diplomat, including his participation in the U.S. commission to negotiate the Treaty of Ghent.
Papers: 1802-1812, 98 items. The papers of Albert Gallatin include correspondence during his tenure as Secretary of the Treasury. There is significant correspondence with David Gelston, who served in a dual role as Collector of Customs, Port of New York and Superintendent of Lighthouses in New York. Subjects include appointments, smuggling duties, ships' papers, revenue cutters, the embargo, and lighthouse matters.

American Antiquarian Society
Manuscripts Department

Worcester, MA
Papers: In the Comparative Indian Vocabulary, 1836, 1 volume with 2 letters. This manuscript volume of Indian vocabulary by Albert Gallatin represents part of his work, "A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America, published by the American Antiquarian Society in 1836. There are also two letters by Albert Gallatin dated 1826 and 1847 respectively.

Brown University
John Hay Library

Providence, RI
Papers: 1811, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to Thomas G. Thornton written on February 18, 1811. In the letter, Albert Gallatin writes of receiving an "abstract of Manufactures & Manufacturing establishment in Maine..." Albert Gallatin assures Thomas Thornton, the Marshal of Maine, that he will be compensated.

Dartmouth College
Rauner Special Collections Library

Hanover, NH
Papers: ca. 1800, 1 page. A letter from Albert Gallatin to Benjamin Lincoln written around 1800. In the letter, Albert Gallatin states that the President has ordered a thorough study of the question of establishing a marine hospital in the vicinity of Boston.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Microfilm: 1761-1880, 51 microfilm reels. Microfilm edition sponsored by New York University and the National Historical Publications Commission.
Papers: 1783-1847, 300 items. The papers of Albert Gallatin include correspondence, writings, and notes, relating to such topics as the Treasury Department, the trial of Aaron Burr, U.S. relations with France, the Oregon boundary question, and Albert Gallatin's ethnological work on Indian tribes of Mexico and on Indian languages.
Papers: 1802-1815, 2 items.

Massachusetts Historical Society

Boston, MA
Papers: 1790-1840, 1 folder. The collection of Albert Gallatin contains a small amount of notes, memos, and news clippings. Topics covered in the papers include information about the U.S. census and surveying problems.

The Morgan Library
Department of Literary and Historical Manuscripts

New York, NY
Papers: 1801, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to Aquila Brown written on August 3, 1801. In the letter, Albert Gallatin writes concerning the seizure of refined sugar imported in a manner forbidden by law.
Papers: 1802, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to President Thomas Jefferson written on April 21, 1802. In the letter, Albert Gallatin encloses a draft of the articles agreed upon by the Georgia Commissioners.
Papers: 1804, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to C.A. Rodney written on September 25, 1804. In the letter, Albert Gallatin writes concerning sick leave for government employees in various cities.
Papers: 1807, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to Noah Webster written on January 6, 1807. In the letter, he thanks Noah Webster for a copy of his dictionary and for his comments on Albert Gallatin's table of exports and the Bank of the United States.
Papers: 1810, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to Jonathan Russell, Chargé d'Affaires in Paris, written on November 5, 1810. Albert Gallatin writes on financial matters relating to his post.

New York University Archives
Elmer Holmes Bobst Library

New York, NY
Papers: In the New York University Gallatin Papers Project, 1954-1969, 2.5 linear feet. The Gallatin Papers Project was an editing project of faculty of the Department of History that produced a microfilm edition of the papers of Albert Gallatin. The records include correspondence, memoranda, clippings, a grant proposal, notes on Albert Gallatin's genealogy, photoprints, and a bound volume of calendared documents located at New-York Historical Society, all relating to the editing project.

Northwestern University Library
Special Collections Department

Evanston, IL
Papers: 1801-1804, 2 items. The document written by Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin on September 4, 1801, refers to action upon a petition to avoid collection of duties. Another item written by Secretary Gallatin on April 12, 1804, refers to action upon a petition to avoid forfeiture and penalties on a ship owned by two New York merchants.

Ohio Historical Society
Archives/Library

Columbus, OH
Papers: 1800-1811, 0.25 cubic foot. The papers of Albert Gallatin include correspondence between the Department of the Treasury and the surveyor general discussing surveying Ohio and the Northwest Territory.

University of California
The Bancroft Library

Berkeley, CA
Papers: 1803, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to Henry Sewall written on March 9, 1803. In the letter, Albert Gallatin sends a duplicate of his decision in the case of Joseph McLellen et al., owners of the ship named Eliza.

The University of Chicago
Special Collections Research Center

Chicago, IL
Papers: In the Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1787, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to John Moylan written on July 10, 1787.
Papers: 1806, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to Charles Simms written on October 6, 1806. In the letter, Albert Gallatin asks Charles Simms to investigate the whereabouts of a trunk and other containers that were shipped to him from New York. The letter is tipped into "The Supreme Court in United States History" by Charles Warren.
Papers: 1836, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to Virgil David written on June 2, 1836. In the letter, Albert Gallatin expresses his gratitude at being elected an honorary member of the Lawrenceville Lyceum. Albert Gallatin also promises to send Virgil David a copy of his soon-to-be-published work entitled A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America.

University of Virginia
The Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library

Charlottesville, VA
Papers: 1828, 1 item. A letter from Albert Gallatin to James Madison written on February 27, 1828. In the letter, Albert Gallatin writes regarding the purchase of "philosophical apparatus and of instruments for the University of Virginia under Thomas Jefferson's direction."

Yale University
Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

New Haven, CT
Papers: 1819, 6 pages. A letter from Albert Gallatin to His Excellency George W. Campbell written on September 15, 1819. In the letter, Albert Gallatin writes concerning the Treaty of Washington.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Adams, Henry. Albert Gallatin. With an introduction by Raymond Walters, Jr. New York : Chelsea House, 1983. Reprint of Life of Albert Gallatin. Selections. Philadelphia and London: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1879.

Aitken, Thomas. Albert Gallatin: Early America's Swiss-born Statesman. New York: Vantage Press, 1985.

Badollet, John Louis. The Correspondence of John Badollet and Albert Gallatin, 1804-1836. Edited by Gayle Thornbrough. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1963.

Balinky, Alexander. Albert Gallatin: Fiscal Theories and Policies. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1958.

Ewing, Frank E. America's Forgotten Statesman: Albert Gallatin. New York: Vantage Press, [1959].

Gallatin, Albert. An address to the people of the United States. Philadelphia: Printed by James Humphreys for E. Bronson. 1802.

------. Considerations on the Currency and Banking System of the United States. Philadelphia: Carey & Lea, 1831. Reprint, New York: Greenwood Press, 1968.

------. An examination of the conduct of the executive of the United States, towards the French Republic; likewise an analysis of the explanatory article of the British treaty--in a series of letters. By a citizen of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Printed by Francis and Robert Bailey, at Yorick's-head no. 116, High-street, 1797.

------. Expenses of the war. [Washington]: J.T. Towers, printer, [1848].

------. Inaugural address of the Hon. Albert Gallatin. New-York: The Society, 1843.

------. Letters of Albert Gallatin, on the Oregon question, originally published in the National Intelligencer, January, 1846. Washington: Printed by J. and G. S. Gideon, 1846.

------. Map of the Indian tribes of North America, about 1600 A.D. along the Atlantic, & about 1800 A.D. westwardly. Published by the American Antiquarian Society from a drawing by Hon. A. Gallatin. [Washington, D.C.]: The Society, [1836].

------. A memoir on the north-eastern boundary. New-York: Printed for the Society, 1843.

------. Notes on the semi-civilized nations of Mexico, Yucatan, and Central America. New York: Bartlett & Welford, 1845.

------. The Oregon question. New York: Bartlet & Welford, 1846.

------. The Papers of Albert Gallatin. [Philadelphia: Rhistoric Publications, 1969].

------. Peace with Mexico. New York: Bartlett & Welford, 1848.

------. The Right of the United States of America to the North-eastern Boundary Claimed By Them, Principally Extracted from the Statements Laid Before the King of the Netherlands. New York: S. Adams, printer, 1840. Reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, [1970].

------. Selected Writings of Albert Gallatin. Edited by E. James Ferguson. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967.

------. A sketch of the finances of the United States. New-York: Printed by William A. Davis, 1796.

------. The speech of Albert Gallatin, a Representative from the County of Fayette, in the House of Representatives of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, on the important question touching the validity of the elections held in the four western counties of the state, on the 14th day of October, 1794: With notes and an appendix, containing sundry documents relative to the western insurrection. Philadelphia: Printed by William W. Woodward, 1795.

------. The speech of Albert Gallatin, delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States, on the first of March 1798, upon the Foreign Intercourse Bill. Philadelphia: Printed by Richard Folwell, 1798.

------. The substance of two speeches of Mr. Gallatin, on the bill for augmenting the navy establishment of the United States, in the House of Representatives, on the 7th and 11th of February, 1799. Philadelphia: Printed by Joseph Gales, 1799.

------. Suggestions on the banks and currency of the several United States, in reference principally to the suspension of specie payments . New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1841.

------. A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British and Russian Possessions in North America. 1836. Reprint, New York: AMS Press, [1973].

------. Views of the public debt, receipts, & expenditures of the United States. Philadelphia: Printed by Mathew Carey, 1801

------. The Writings of Albert Gallatin. Philadelphia [etc.]: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1879.

Kuppenheimer, L. B. Albert Gallatin's Vision of Democratic Stability: An Interpretive Profile. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996.

Lodge, Henry Cabot. Albert Gallatin. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1879.

Mai, Chien Tseng. The Fiscal Policies of Albert Gallatin. New York: N.p., 1930.

Merk, Frederick. Albert Gallatin and the Oregon Problem. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950.

Stevens, John Austin. Albert Gallatin. 1884. Reprint, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. [New York: AMS Press, 1972].

Torres, Louis. Special History Report, Albert Gallatin, Statesman, Diplomat, Humanitarian, Scientist: Friendship Hill National Historic Site. [Denver: Colo.]: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, [1991].

Walters, Raymond, Jr. Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat. New York: Macmillan, 1957.

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