We hope this book will serve as a starting point for students and researchers. Accordingly, we have provided bibliographic information. When applicable, we have included information at the end of each profile about principal manuscript collections, other repositories with significant holdings, and oral histories. This information was drawn from the House and Senate records that were used to compile the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
The historical literature on Latino studies, which has become one of the most dynamic fields in the profession, has been created largely since the 1960s and is far too complex for a detailed discussion here. As often as possible, in the endnotes of the essays and profiles of this volume, we have pointed readers toward standard works on various aspects of Latino studies and congressional history. However, the following general studies of Hispanic-American politics and civil rights proved important. They include F. Chris Garcia and Gabriel R. Sanchez, Hispanics and the U.S. Political System: Moving into the Mainstream (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2008) and Maurilio E. Vigil, Hispanics in Congress: A Historical and Political Survey (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1996). For the rise of Chicano activism, two books by Juan Gómez-Quiñones are standard: Chicano Politics: Reality & Promise,1940–1990 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1990) and Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600–1940 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994). Manuel G. Gonzales, Mexicanos: A History of Mexicans in the United States, second ed. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009), David Montejano, Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836–1986 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987), and John D. Skrentny, The Minority Rights Revolution (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002), are also useful histories. An important general reference work is Suzanne Oboler and Deena J. González, eds., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos & Latinas in the United States, four vols. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
For the history of America’s relationship with Puerto Rico and overseas possessions with Hispanic populations, we found the following works to be useful. The standard overview of Puerto Rican-U.S. relations is César J. Ayala and Rafael Bernabe, Puerto Rico in the American Century: A History since 1898 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007). Also helpful, though more focused on the U.S. perspective, are books by Surendra Bhana, The United States and the Development of the Puerto Rican Status Question, 1936–1968 (Lawrence: The University Press of Kansas, 1975), Roland I. Perusse, The United States and Puerto Rico: The Struggle for Equality (Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1990), and Truman R. Clark, Puerto Rico and the United States, 1917–1933 (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1975). Other useful works that focus on specific aspects of Puerto Rican history during the era of American rule are Thomas G. Mathews, Puerto Rican Politics and the New Deal (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1960); Alfredo Montalvo-Barbot, Political Conflict and Constitutional Change in Puerto Rico, 1898–1952 (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1997); and James L. Dietz, Economic History of Puerto Rico: Institutional Change and Capitalist Development (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986). To help us better understand the complicated Puerto Rican political landscape, we consulted Robert J. Alexander, ed., Political Parties of the Americas (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982) and Robert W. Anderson, Party Politics in Puerto Rico (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1965). Two political biographies also were important: A. W. Maldonado, Luis Muñoz Marín: Puerto Rico’s Democratic Revolution (San Juan, PR: La Editorial Universidad de Puerto Rico, 2006) and Gonzalo F. Córdova, Resident Commissioner Santiago Iglesias and His Times (San Juan, PR: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1993). For an introduction to the protean nature of Puerto Rico’s status in the American empire, we consulted Christina Duffy Burnett and Burke Marshall, eds., Foreign in a Domestic Sense: Puerto Rico, American Expansion, and the Constitution (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001) and Bartholomew H. Sparrow, The Insular Cases and the Emergence of American Empire (Lawrence: The University Press of Kansas, 2006).
A number of volumes helped us better understand the history of New Mexico, its status as a territory and push for statehood, and the U.S. Southwest generally. Useful general histories included Charles F. Coan, A History of New Mexico, three vols. (Chicago & New York: The American Historical Society, 1925); Jack E. Holmes, Politics in New Mexico (Albuquerque: University ofNew Mexico Press, 1967); Howard R. Lamar, The Far Southwest, 1846–1912: A Territorial History, rev. ed. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2000); and Robert W. Larson, New Mexico’s Quest for Statehood, 1846–1912 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1968). Laura E. Gómez, Manifest Destinies: The Making of the Mexican American Race (New York: New York University Press, 2007) and John M. Nieto-Phillips, The Language of Blood: The Making of Spanish-American Identity in New Mexico, 1880s–1930s (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2004) offer compelling narratives about ethnic and racial identity in the territory in the decades after its control was transferred to the United States.
For biographical information on early Territorial Delegates, the following were valuable guides: Carlos Brazil Ramirez, “The Hispanic Political Elite in Territorial New Mexico: A Study of Classical Colonialism” (Ph.D. diss., University of California–Santa Barbara, 1979); Gerald Arthur Theisen, “Jose Manuel Gallegos (1815–75): The First Mexican-American in the United States Congress” (Ph.D. diss., University of New Mexico, 1985); Ralph Emerson Twitchell, ed., Leading Facts of New Mexican History, vol. II (Cedar Rapids, IA: Torch Press, 1912); and Maurilio E. Vigil, Los Patrones: Profiles of Hispanic Political Leaders in New Mexico History (Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1980).
For a better understanding of the history of U.S. territorial acquisition and Manifest Destiny, we consulted George C. Herring, From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008); Reginald Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981); Thomas R. Hietala, Manifest Design: American Exceptionalism & Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003); Daniel Walker Howe, What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007); Walter LaFeber, The American Age: U.S. Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad, two vols. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1994); Eric T. L. Love, Race over Empire: Racism & U.S. Imperialism, 1865–1900 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004); and Gordon S. Wood, Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
The notion of representation on the periphery of a democracy, which is embodied by statutory representatives to Congress, is understudied and ripe for scholarly exploration. Nevertheless, the following works are helpful jumping-off points: Abraham Holtzman, “Empire and Representation: The U.S. Congress,” Legislative Studies Quarterly 11, no. 2 (May 1986): 249–273; Arnold H. Leibowitz, Defining Status: A Comprehensive Analysis of United States Territorial Relations (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989); Betsy Palmer, “Delegates to the U.S. Congress: History and Current Status,” Congressional Research Service (CRS) Report for Congress (R40555), 6 January 2011, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; R. Eric Petersen, “Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico,” CRS Report for Congress (RL31856), 16 January 2009; Earl S. Pomeroy, The Territories and the United States, 1861–1890: Studies in Colonial Administration (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969; reprint of 1947 edition); José E. Rios, “The Office of the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico” (M.A. thesis, Georgetown University, 1969); William R. Tansill, “The Resident Commissioner to the United States from Puerto Rico,” Revista juridica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 47, nos. 1–2, 1978: 68–106; and Nancy Jo Tice, “The Territorial Delegate, 1794–1820” (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1967).
For readers who are interested in acquiring reproductions of the photographs in this book, we have provided information for images from public, private, and commercial repositories. The photo collections we used are as follows: Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.); the Still Pictures Branch of the National Archives and Records Administration (College Park, MD); the Center for Southwest Research, University of New Mexico (Albuquerque); the Museum of New Mexico (Santa Fe); the Puerto Rican Cultural Institute (Chicago, IL); and the Las Vegas Citizens Committee for Historic Preservation (Las Vegas, NM). Other photographs were provided by the Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives; the Office of Photography, U.S. House of Representatives; the Collection of the U.S. Senate; and the U.S. Senate Historical Office. The images of current Members were provided by their offices, which are the point of contact for those seeking official images.