*Party division totals are based on election day results.
The Republican majority in the Senate eroded and the Democratic majority in the House declined after the 1886 election. President Grover Cleveland fought the 50th Congress (1887–1889) on a number of different legislative fronts and wound up vetoing more than 200 bills (mostly private pensions). He got little help from fellow Democrats in lowering the tariff and none from congressional Republicans calling for higher protectionist rates. Congress established an independent Department of Labor in 1888 and a cabinet-level Department of Agriculture in 1889.
To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section