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40th Congress (1867–1869)

Congressional Profile

Total Membership:

  • 226 Representatives
  • 8 Delegates

Party Divisions:*

  • 47 Democrats
  • 173 Republicans
  • 2 Conservatives
  • 1 Conservative Republican
  • 1 Independent Republican

*Party division totals are based on election day results.

Theodore Medad Pomeroy/tiles/non-collection/s/speaker_pomeroy_2005_16_26_1.xml Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives
About this object
Representative Theodore Pomeroy of New York served only one day as Speaker of the House--the shortest in House History.

Congress Overview

The 1866 elections all but ended presidential Reconstruction. The Republicans won overwhelming majorities in both the House and Senate, putting them in a position to easily override any veto by President Andrew Johnson. The 40th Congress (1867–1869) passed three major Reconstruction Acts that put the former rebel states under military rule. When President Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, in apparent violation of the Tenure of Office Act, the House brought 11 articles of impeachment against him. In the closing months of the Congress, the Senate deliberated and acquitted Johnson by a single vote.

Member Information

  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, (1774–2005), Official Annotated Membership Roster by State with Vacancy and Special Election Information for the 40th Congress [PDF]
  • Learn more about the House of Representatives with an interactive map

Learn more about the People of the People's House

Leadership & Officers

Speaker of the House:
Schuyler Colfax (R–Indiana)
Theodore M. Pomeroy (R–New York) 1
Clerk of the House:
Edward McPherson
Sergeant at Arms:
Nathaniel G. Ordway
Chaplain of the House:
Charles B. Boynton – Congregationalist
Charles E. Lippincott
William S. King
Messenger to the Speaker:
William D. Todd
Democratic Caucus Chairman:
Republican Conference Chairman:
N/A 2

To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section


1Elected Speaker, March 3, 1869, and served one day.

2Conference minutes show three Members (Representative Nathaniel Banks of Massachusetts, Luck Poland of Vermont, and Samuel Hooper of Massachusetts) chairing three separate meetings.