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39th Congress (1865–1867)

Congressional Profile

Total Membership:

  • 193 Representatives
  • 9 Delegates

Party Divisions:*

  • 38 Democrats
  • 136 Republicans
  • 13 Unconditional Unionists
  • 5 Unionists
  • 1 Independent Republican

*Party division totals are based on election day results.

Interior of the New Dome of the Capitol at Washington/tiles/non-collection/I/InterioroftheNewDome_2004_091_003.xml Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives, Gift of U.S. Capitol Historical Society
About this object
This 1861 artist rendition of the new Capitol Dome depicted a pedestrian balcony that was not part of the final construction.

Congress Overview

Republicans kept control of the 39th Congress (1865–1867), and Abraham Lincoln went back to the White House following the 1864 elections. Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865, however, elevated Andrew Johnson to the presidency. Johnson took control of the South’s reconstruction, freely issued pardons to former Confederates, and backed the new segregated state governments. Congress quickly circumvented Johnson's authority and passed the First Reconstruction Act, which put the South under military rule. It also designed an Army hierarchy independent of the President and passed the Tenure of Office Act, which required the Senate to approve the removal of executive officials.

Member Information

  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, (1774-2005), Official Annotated Membership Roster by State with Vacancy and Special Election Information for the 39th Congress [PDF]
  • Learn more about the House of Representatives with an interactive map

Learn more about the People of the People's House

Leadership & Officers

Speaker of the House:
Schuyler Colfax (R–Indiana)
Clerk of the House:
Edward McPherson
Sergeant at Arms:
Nathaniel G. Ordway
Chaplain of the House:
Charles B. Boynton – Congregationalist
William Henry Channing – Unitarian
Ira Goodnow
Josiah Given
Messenger to the Speaker:
William D. Todd
Republican Conference Chairman:
Justin S. Morrill (R–Vermont)
Democratic Caucus Chairman:

To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section