The photographic company of Underwood and Underwood made inroads in the portraiture business in the early 20th century. By tinting a photograph or, as in this case, making a painted version, they provided relatively inexpensive monuments to a public career. Founded in Kansas in 1881, by the time this portrait of Appropriations Committee Chairman Madden was made, the company had grown enormously, first through its stereoscopic view business, and later by its move into news photography during World War I.
History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, “Martin Barnaby Madden,” https://history.house.gov/Collection/Listing/2002/2002-006-013/ (August 15, 2022)
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