LODGE, Henry Cabot

1850–1924

Biography

LODGE, Henry Cabot, (great–grandson of George Cabot, grandfather of Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., and John Davis Lodge), a Representative and a Senator from Massachusetts; born in Boston, Mass., May 12, 1850; attended a private school and graduated from Harvard University in 1871; editor of the North American Review 1873-1876; graduated from the Harvard Law School in 1874 and admitted to the bar in 1875; earned one of the first Ph.D. degrees in history and government granted by Harvard University in 1876; lecturer on American history at Harvard University 1876-1879; member, State house of representatives 1880-1881; author of many historical, biographical, and political works; unsuccessful Republican candidate in 1882 for election to the Forty-eighth Congress and in 1884 to the Forty-ninth Congress; elected as a Republican to the Fiftieth, Fifty-first, and Fifty-second Congresses and served from March 4, 1887, until March 3, 1893, when he resigned; had been reelected to the Fifty-third Congress, but was later elected as a Republican to the United States Senate in 1893; reelected to the Senate in 1899, 1905, 1911, 1916, and 1922 and served from March 4, 1893, until his death; Republican Conference chairman (1918-24); president pro tempore (1911-13); chairman, Committee on Immigration (Fifty-fourth through Sixty-second Congresses), Committee on Printing (Fifty-fifth Congress), Committee on the Philippines (Fifty-sixth through Sixty-first Congresses), Committee on Private Land Claims (Sixty-third through Sixty-fifth Congresses), Committee on Foreign Relations (Sixty-sixth through Sixty-eighth Congresses), Republican Conference (1918-24); appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt a member of the Alaskan Boundary Tribunal in 1903; member of the United States Immigration Commission 1907-1910; overseer of Harvard University from 1911 until his death; represented the United States as a member of the Conference on Limitation of Armament in 1921; died in Cambridge, Mass., on November 9, 1924; interment in Mount Auburn Cemetery.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

American Academy of Arts and Letters

New York, NY
Papers: 1903-1924. 110 items. Correspondence relating to National Institute of Arts and Letters and the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

American Antiquarian Society

Worcester, MA
Papers: 1884-1934. 18 items. Personal and political letters.

Boston Public Library

Boston, MA
Papers: 74 items.

Boston University

Boston, MA
Papers: 1886-1921. 12 letters.

Brooklyn Historical Society

Brooklyn, NY
Papers: 1882-1885. 5 letters.

Brown University

Providence, RI
Papers: In Maud Howe Elliott papers, 1872-1948; Augustus Mendon Lord papers, 1795-1908; and 2 letters (1922, 1922) to William L. King.

Columbia University
Rare Book and Manuscript Library

New York, NY
Papers: Correspondence in Edward Morse Shepard papers, 1837-1914; Edward Van Dyke Robinson papers, 1884-1915; Eugene Barry papers, 1848-1928; and Brander Matthews papers, 1877-1962.

Cornell University Libraries
Rare Books and Manuscript Collections

Ithaca, NY
Papers: In Jacob Gould Schurman papers, 1878-1976; and Civil Service Reform Association records, 1880-1947.

Dartmouth College

Hanover, NH
Papers: In James Huneker papers, 1867-1921; Channing Harris Cox papers, 1904-1960; and Frank D. Currier letterbook, 1890.

Harvard University
Law School Library

Cambridge, MA
Papers: In Lawrence Graham Brooks papers, 1897-1981; and Charles Warren papers, ca. 1885-1945 (bulk 1900-1942).

Harvard University
Houghton Library

Cambridge, MA
Papers: In Theodore Roosevelt papers, 1850s-1970s; Ellis Loring Dresel papers, 1879-1926 (bulk 1916-1922); W. Cameron Forbes papers, 1900-1946; and William Warland Clapp papers, 1819-1891 (bulk 1840-1891).

Harvard University Archives
Pusey Library

Cambridge, MA
Papers: Material concerning the Abbott Lawrence Lowell-Henry Cabot Lodge debate (1919) in the Abbott Lawrence Lowell papers, 1889-1958 (bulk 1889-1943); correspondence in John Jay Chapman papers, 1876-1935; Thomas Wentworth Higginson papers, 1851-1911; William Woodville Rockhill papers, 1657-1715, 1806-1936; and Ellis Loring Dresel papers, 1916-1921. Finding aid.

Herbert Hoover Library

West Branch, IA
Papers: 1919-1924. 3 folders.

Indiana State Library

Indianapolis, IN
Papers: In Will H. Hays papers, 1857-1954 (bulk 1914-1954).

Johns Hopkins University
Milton S. Eisenhower Library

Baltimore, MD
Papers: Correspondence in Robert Roberts Hitt papers, 1884-1905.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Papers: 1892-1911. 18 letters.
Additional Papers: Items and references in various collections including Chandler P. Anderson papers; William E. Borah papers; Moreton Frewen papers; Breckinridge family papers, 1752-1965; Owen Wister papers, 1829-1937; and photographs.

Massachusetts Historical Society

Boston, MA
Papers: 1745-1968. 155 boxes, 216 volumes and 1 oversize container. Official and personal correspondence, letterbooks, legislative files and correspondence, account books, diaries (1875-1885; 1899), notebooks, scrapbooks, writings and speeches, family papers, audio tapes, newsreels, photographs, and memorabilia. Topics include Republican party politics in Massachusetts and nation, foreign policy, Spanish-American War, occupation of Philipines, Panama Canal, World War I, Treaty of Versailles, and Washington Conference on Limitation of Armament. Finding aid.
Papers: Correspondence in Charles Francis Adams papers, 1861-1933; George Bancroft papers; Dana family papers, 1654-1933; George von Lengerke Meyer papers, 1908-1918; James Ford Rhodes papers; and Henry Lee Shattuck papers, 1897-1971.

Massachusetts State Archives

Boston, MA
Papers: 11 letters to Massachusetts governors.

Massachusetts State Library

Boston, MA
Papers: 2 letters to Washburn, a politician and journalist in Robert Morris Washburn papers, 1925-1939.

New England Historical Genealogical Society

Boston, MA
Papers: Correspondence in William Sohier Bryant papers, 1780-1957.

New Jersey Historical Society

Newark, NJ
Papers: Correspondence in McDowell family papers, 1792-1966; George Perry Morris papers, 1843-1918; and Franklin Murphy papers, 1863-1921.

New-York Historical Society

New York, NY
Papers: June 8, 1888; January 25, 1911; October 13, 1917; and April 18, 1919. 4 letters.

Peabody Essex Museum

Salem, MA
Papers: 3 envelopes of letters, acknowledgements, and appointments. Also in Mary Elizabeth Williams papers, 1830-1893.

Pierpont Morgan Library

New York, NY
Papers: 1 item (1879); and 1 letter (February 12, 1919) to Charles Greenough in the Gilder Lehrman collection. Finding aid.

Radcliffe College
Schlesinger Library

Cambridge, MA
Papers: In Elizabeth Lowell Putnam papers, 1887-1935; Sallie Elizabeth Joy White papers, 1828-1936; Mary Ware Dennett papers, 1874-1944; and Boston Women's Trade Union League records, 1923-1933.

Stanford University Libraries
Special Collections

Stanford, CA
Papers: In fur seal controversy papers, 1897-1918; Edward Lee Plumb papers, 1856-1912; Bernard Augustine De Voto papers, 1918-1955; Elmer E. Robinson collection, 1765-1950; and David Starr Jordan papers, 1861-1964.

State Historical Society of Wisconsin
Archives Division

Madison, WI
Papers: Correspondence (1885) in Theodore Roosevelt papers, 1885-1918;

Syracuse University
George Arents Research Library

Syracuse, NY
Papers: 1877-1924. 245 items. Letters, chiefly to J.D. Henley Luce and Stephen Luce, relating to personal and family affairs, tariff revision, child labor, national defense, the Corrupt Practices Act, sugar, Puerto Rico, arbitration commissions and treaties, the Spanish-American War, World War I, Lodge's antagonism to the policies of Woodrow Wilson, and Lodge's opposition to the League of Nations.
Additional Papers: Miscellaneous items in the Theodore Roosevelt collection, 1898-1913, (bulk 1910-1913); John Russell Young correspondence, 1890-1905; and Frederick Hale papers, 1917-1940.

Tennessee State Library and Archives

Nashville, TN
Papers: Correspondence in Theodore Gillard Trimmier papers, 1858-1865.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library

Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: Correspondence in Claude Halstead Van Tyne papers, 1885-1930; Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg papers, 1884-1974; Trevor papers; and Oliver Lyman Spaulding papers, 1861-1921. Finding aid.

University of the Pacific
Holt-Atherton Pacific Center for Western Studies

Stockton, CA
Papers: Correspondence in Sierra Buttes Mining Company records, 1869-1920.

University of Vermon
Bailey/Howe Library

Burlington, VT
Papers: Correspondence in John Spargo papers, 1750-1966. Finding aid.

University of Virginia
Alderman Library

Charlottesville, VA
Papers: Correspondence in various collections. Finding aid.

Yale University Libraries
Manuscripts and Archives

New Haven, CT
Papers: In Whitelaw Reid papers, 1865-1923; Carter G. Woodson collection, 1875-1950 on 10 reels microfilm, originals at Library of Congress; Thomas Raynesford Lounsbury papers, 1829-1915; Frank Lyon Polk papers, 1883-1942 (bulk 1915-1921); Charles Burr Todd papers, 1880-1917; Thomas Collier Platt papers, 1851-1915; Charles Dewey Hilles papers, 1885-1955; Henry Lewis Stimson papers, 1846-1966; Carrington family papers, 1749-1929; Samuel Bowles papers, 1853-1890; and Frank Parsons papers, 1888-1908.
Research Libraries Information Network In addition to the institutions listed above, items are also cataloged in collections at: Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Buffalo, NY; Glens Falls-Queensbury Historical Association, Glens Falls, NY; Harvard Business School, Baker Library, Boston, MA; New York Public Library, New York, NY; Rockefeller Archive Center, North Tarrytown, NY; Rutgers University Libraries, New Brunswick, NJ; Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, CA; State University of New York, Buffalo, NY; Temple University Libraries, Philadelphia, PA; University of Rochester, Department of Rare Books, Manuscripts, and Archives, Rochester, NY; and Yale Divinity School Library, New Haven, CT.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Carroll, John M. "Henry Cabot Lodge's Contributions to the Shaping of Republican European Diplomacy, 1920-1924." Capitol Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 153-65.

Chase, Philip Putnam. "A Crucial Juncture in the Political Careers of Lodge and Long." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 70 (October 1950-May 1953): 102-27.

Crowley, John W. "E.A. Robinson and Henry Cabot Lodge." New England Quarterly 43 (March 1970): 115-24.

Dotson, David Wendell. "Henry Cabot Lodge: A Political Biography, 1887-1901." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1980.

Fischer, Robert J. "Henry Cabot Lodge and the Taft Arbitration Treaties." South Atlantic Quarterly 78 (Spring 1979): 244-58.

____. "Henry Cabot Lodge's Concept of Foreign Policy and the League of Nations." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia, 1971.

Garraty, John A. Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953.

____. "Henry Cabot Lodge and the Alaskan Boundary Tribunal." New England Quarterly 24 (December 1951): 469-94.

Groves, Charles Stuart. Henry Cabot Lodge, the Statesman. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1925.

Hewes, James E., Jr. "Henry Cabot Lodge and the League of Nations." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 114 (August 1970): 245-55.

Hill, Thomas Michael. "The Senate Leadership and International Policy from Lodge to Vandenberg." Ph.D. dissertation, Washington University, 1970.

Lael, Richard L. "Struggle for Ratification: Wilson, Lodge, and the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty." Diplomatic History 2 (Winter 1978): 81-102.

Lawrence, William. Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biographical Sketch. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1925.

Lodge, Henry Cabot. Alexander Hamilton. 1882. Reprint of 1898 ed., with new introduction by Mary-Jo Kline. New York: Chelsea House, 1980.

____. "The Anglo-Saxon Land-Law." In Essays in Anglo-Saxon Law, edited by Henry Adams, pp. 55-119. 1876. Reprint of 1905 ed. Hackensack, N.J.: Rothman Reprints, 1972. Lodge's doctoral dissertation (Harvard University).

____. Certain Accepted Heroes, and Other Essays in Literature and Politics. 1897. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971.

____. Daniel Webster. 1883. Reprint of 1899 ed., with new introduction by Charles M. Wiltse. New York: Chelsea House, 1981.

____. The Democracy of the Constitution, and Other Addresses and Essays. 1915. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1966.

____. Early Memories. 1913. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1975.

____. A Fighting Frigate, and Other Essays and Addresses. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902.

____. A Frontier Town and Other Essays. 1906. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970.

____. George Washington. 2 vols. 1889. Reprint of 1898 ed. New York: AMS Press, 1972.

____. Historical and Political Essays. 1892. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1972.

____. Life and Letters of George Cabot. 1877. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1974.

____. One Hundred Years of Peace. New York: Macmillan Co., 1913.

____. The Senate and the League of Nations. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1925.

____. The Senate of the United States, and Other Essays and Addresses Historical and Literary. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921.

____. A Short History of the English Colonies in America. 1881. Rev. ed. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1909.

____. Speeches and Addresses, 1884-1909. 2d ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1909.

____. The Story of the Revolution. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1898. Later published as a single volume edition (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903).

____. Studies in History. 1884. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1972.

____. Two Commencement Addresses. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1915.

____. War Addresses, 1915-1917. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1917.

____. The War with Spain. 1899. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1970.

____, ed. Ballads and Lyrics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1880.

____, ed. The Federalist: A Commentary on the Constitution of the United States. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1888.

____, ed. Major Andre's Journal. 1903. Reprint of 1930 ed. New York: New York Times, 1968.

____, ed. The Works of Alexander Hamilton. 9 vols. 1885-1886. Reprint of 1904 expanded ed. (12 vols.). New York: Haskell House Publishers, 1971.

____, and Theodore Roosevelt. Hero Tales from American History. New York: Century Co., 1895.

____, and Francis W. Halsey, eds. The Best of the World's Classics. 10 vols. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1912.

____, and Charles F. Redmond, eds. Selections from the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge, 1884-1918. 2 vols. 1925. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.

Mervin, David. "Henry Cabot Lodge and the League of Nations." Journal of American Studies 4 (February 1971): 201-14.

Meyerhuber, Carl Irving, Jr. "Henry Cabot Lodge, Massachusetts, and the New Manifest Destiny." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego, 1972.

Moore, Betty J. "The Majority Leader of the United States Senate: The Leader's Effectiveness as a Major Determinant in the Leadership Model." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 1986.

Moore, John Hammond. "William Cabell Bruce, Henry Cabot Lodge, and the Distribution of Ability in the United States." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 86 (July 1978): 355-61.

Parzen, Herbert. "The Lodge-Fish Resolution." American Jewish Historical Quarterly 60 (September 1970): 69-81.

Paulsen, George E. "Secretary Gresham, Senator Lodge, and American Good Offices in China, 1894." Pacific Historical Review 36 (May 1967): 123-42.

Sachs, Andrew Adam. "The Imperialist Style of Henry Cabot Lodge." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1992.

Schriftgiesser, Karl. The Gentleman from Massachusetts: Henry Cabot Lodge. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1944.

Stern, Sheldon M. "Henry Cabot Lodge and Louis A. Coolidge in Defense of American Sovereignty, 1898-1920." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 87 (1975): 118-34.

U.S. Congress. Henry Cabot Lodge: Memorial Addresses. 68th Cong., 2d sess., 1924-1925. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1925.

Welch, Richard E., Jr. "Opponents and Colleagues: George Frisbie Hoar and Henry Cabot Lodge, 1898-1904." New England Quarterly 39 (June 1966): 182-209.

Werking, Richard H. "Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and the Philippines: A Note on American Territorial Expansion." Pacific Historical Review 42 (May 1973): 234-40.

Widenor, William C. "Henry Cabot Lodge: The Astute Parliamentarian." In First Among Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of the Twentieth Century, edited by Richard A. Baker and Roger H. Davidson, pp. 38-62. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1991.

____. Henry Cabot Lodge and the Search for an American Foreign Policy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

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