HAMILTON, Alexander

HAMILTON, Alexander
Image courtesy of Library of Congress
1757–1804

Biography

HAMILTON, Alexander, a Delegate from New York; born on the island of Nevis, British West Indies, January 11, 1757; immigrated to the United States in 1772, where he received educational training in the schools of Elizabethtown, N.J., and King's College (now Columbia University), New York City; entered the Continental Army in New York in 1776 as captain of Artillery; appointed aide-de-camp to General Washington March 1, 1777, and served in that capacity until February 16, 1781; Member of the Continental Congress in 1782, 1783, and 1788; member of the Annapolis Convention of 1786; served in the New York State assembly in 1787; member of the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention in 1787 which adopted the Constitution of the United States and signed it; member of the State ratification convention in 1788; studied law; was admitted to the bar and practiced in New York City; Secretary of the Treasury in the Cabinet of President Washington 1789-1795; returned to New York and resumed the practice of law; mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr at Weehawken on the Hudson, and died in New York City the following day, July 12, 1804; interment in Trinity Churchyard.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Papers: ca. 1708-1903, 22.4 linear feet. The papers include correspondence, speeches and writings, legal and financial papers, printed matter, and other papers, chiefly from 1777 to 1804. The material documents the personal life and public career of Alexander Hamilton, especially his service as an aide to General George Washington during the Revolutionary War, his participation in the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, his service as Secretary of the Treasury, his New York law practice, and his service as Inspector General of the Army. Subjects covered in the material include economic issues as public finance, creation of a national bank, establishment of a mint, development of manufacturing, and the Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures, U.S. relations with France and Great Britain, legal cases before the New York Supreme Court, and the Hamilton, McLane (McLean), Schuyler, and Church families. A finding aid is available in the repository and online. The papers are also available on microfilm.

American Jewish Historical Society

New York, NY
Papers: n.d., 0.25 linear foot. A letter written by Alexander Hamilton to an unidentified recipient commenting on the history of the Jews.

Boston Athenaeum

Boston, MA
Papers: 1790, 2 items. A letter from Alexander Hamilton addressed to Mrs. Van Rensselar in support of a nobleman from Italy who is traveling in the Northern part of the United States.

Brigham Young University

Archives, Harold B. Lee Library
Papers: 1792, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton, from the Treasury Department, on June 22, 1792. In the letter, Alexander Hamilton records that the amount of five thousand and fifty dollars was received.
Papers: 1801, 1 page. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to James Stevenson, Jr. written September 13, 1801. Alexander Hamilton writes regarding business matters.

Brooklyn Historical Society

Brooklyn, NY
Papers: ca. 1778-1790, 2 items. The papers include a letter in 1778 from Alexander Hamilton to a collector, Jedediah Huntington, regarding delivery of decision on petition of Richard Savage. Also included in the papers is an oath of allegiance of Alexander Hamilton from 1790.

Columbia University
Rare Book and Manuscript Library

New York, NY
Papers: 1789-1804, approximately 180 items. The papers include letters and documents of Alexander Hamilton, dealing chiefly with political subjects and Alexander Hamilton's activities as Secretary of the Treasury.
Papers: In the Alexander Hamilton Papers Publication Project Records, ca. 1700-1981, approximately 96,000 items. The papers include correspondence, typescripts, photocopies, microfilm, card files, and notes of the Alexander Hamilton Papers Publication Project, 1955-1981. The correspondence files of the editor, Harold C. Syrett, and his staff concerning the operations, activities, gathering of data, photocopies, and microfilm reproductions of letters, manuscripts, and documents by, to, and about Alexander Hamilton and selected and edited for publication by Columbia University Press as The Papers of Alexander Hamilton (New York, 1961-1970).
Papers: In the Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton Papers, ca. 1700-1981, approximately 17,000 items. The papers include correspondence, typescripts, research notes, index cards, photocopies, and photographs of The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton publication project, 1961-1981. These editorial research files of Julius Ludwig Goebel, Joseph Henry Smith, and their staff contain research notes with related correspondence, edited typescript drafts of parts of the published volumes, typescript copies, and photo reproductions of autograph letters, manuscripts, and documents collected by the editors for use in their publication.
Papers: In the Hamilton Family Papers, 1768-1930, 1.5 linear feet. Family members represented in the papers include Alexander Hamilton. A contents list is available to the papers.

Copley Press, Inc.
J. S. Copley Library

La Jolla, CA
Papers: 1791, 2 pages. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to John S. Dexter written on June 22, 1791. Alexander Hamilton requests economic information on manufactures, trade, prices, labor, and laws of the state. This letter inaugurated the project which led directly to Alexander Hamilton's most important statement on the economic structure of America, his report on manufactures to Congress which has been called "the Magna Carta of industrial America."
Papers: 1780, 2 pages. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Judge James Duane written on October 18, 1780. Alexander Hamilton expresses his pleasure that General Gates is to be removed and succeeded by General Greene in the South.
Papers: 1780, 1 page. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to General Anthony Wayne written on September 28, 1780. Alexander Hamilton, as Aide de Camp to General Washington, delivers orders for fifty men to provide security to guards escorting prisoners to headquarters.

Dartmouth College
Rauner Special Collections Library

Hanover, NH
Papers: 1795, 1 page. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Oliver Wolcott written on August 28, 1795. Alexander Hamilton writes that he hopes to receive certain statements he requested.

Duke University
Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library

Durham, NC
Papers: ca. 1780-1791, 2 items. The papers consist of one letter from Alexander Hamilton to Elizabeth Schuyler in 1780 concerning the Benedict Arnold affair and the death of Major John Andre. A second letter dating from 1791 from Alexander Hamilton to Alisha and James Thomas, treasury agents for North Carolina, inquiring whether North Carolina has ever issued its own certificates on indebtedness in lieu of those of the United States.

Harvard University
Houghton Library

Cambridge, MA
Papers: 1777-1800, 0.5 linear foot. The papers include letters from Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the U.S. Treasury to diplomat William Short. The papers also contain a letter from William Bradford to Alexander Hamilton. A finding aid is available in the repository and online.

Historic Hudson Valley Library

Tarrytown, NY
Papers: In the Hamilton Family Papers, ca. 1768-1906, 92 items. The papers include letters to Alexander Hamilton from William Duer and others, concerning Alexander Hamilton's bank plan, government protection for the colony of Gallipolis, William Duer's political difficulties, and other political and personal issues.

Indiana Historical Society

Indianapolis, IN
Papers: 1792, 3 pages. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Israel Ludlow written on November 25, 1792. The letter contains instructions by Alexander Hamilton for surveying a tract of one million acres contracted for by John Cleves Symmes in the Northwest Territory. The letter outlines the area to be surveyed, the conditions of Israel Ludlow's employment, and his protection by the Army.

Massachusetts Historical Society

Boston, MA
Papers: 1791, 1 folder. These papers include arguments made by Alexander Hamilton to President George Washington favoring incorporation of the Bank of the United States, 1791.

The Morgan Library
Department of Literary and Historical Manuscripts

New York, NY
Papers: 1781, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton, Aide de Camp to the Quartermaster General, written on February 21, 1781.
Papers: 1782, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Colonel Laurens written on August 15, 1782. Alexander Hamilton tells Colonel Laurens of his unanimous appointment to Congress and commenting upon the state of the country after peace is made.
Papers: 1785, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to an unidentified recipient written on August 16, 1785. Alexander Hamilton writes concerning his arguments in the case of Hunter Banks and Company.
Papers: 1785, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Richard Varick, Esq., written on December 20, 1785.
Papers: 1786, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to the Corporation of Albany written in October 1786. Alexander Hamilton gives legal advice concerning settlers on corporation land.
Papers: 1792, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Sylvanus Bourne written on May 10, 1792. Alexander Hamilton offers Sylvanus Bourne an appointment as a corresponding clerk in the Treasury Department.
Papers: 1793, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to R. Morris written on May 6, 1793.
Papers: 1793, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, written on June 24, 1793.
Papers: 1794, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to the President of the United States written on May 5, 1794.
Papers: 1800, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Martha Washington written on January 12, 1800. Alexander Hamilton expresses sympathy to Martha Washington on the death of her husband, George Washington.

New-York Historical Society

New York, NY
Papers: ca. 1794-1814, 1 volume. This volume includes correspondence of Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr preceding their duel which resulted in Alexander Hamilton's death.
Papers: 1801, 4 pages. A legal opinion regarding the proposed transfer of land from the Trinity Church in New York to St. Marks Church in-the-Bowery, also in New York, written on November 21, 1801.

The New York Public Library
Rare Books and Manuscripts Division

New York, NY
Papers: 1775-1806, 0.5 linear foot. The collection consists of family and political correspondence, legal notes and papers, manuscripts of writings, and materials about Alexander Hamilton. Includes notes on Alexander Hamilton's affair with Mrs. Maria Reynolds, letters to George Hamilton's affair with Mrs. Maria Reynolds, letters to George Washington concerning the writing of George Washington's farewell address with a draft by Alexander Hamilton for George Washington's consideration, and materials relating to Alexander Hamilton's "Plan for a U.S. Constitution, June 18, 1787." There are also official circulars comprising letters and printed documents as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, primarily to Jedediah Huntington, Collector of Customs, New London, Connecticut.

New York State Library
Manuscripts and Special Collections

New York, NY
Papers: n.d., 25 pages. A notebook of information collected in a case involving the Claverack Patent. The notebook contains notes on evidence, arguments by Alexander Hamilton, and laws relating to the patent.
Papers: n.d., 24 pages. A small notepad containing notes apparently used by Alexander Hamilton in his argument to exclude the patent of Westonhook. The pad provides notes citing reasons supporting Alexander Hamilton's argument, and contains introductory and concluding notes.
Microfilm: 1760-1830, 46 reels. Microfilm of papers of Alexander Hamilton housed at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Papers: ca. 1781-1794, 3 items. The papers include a letter from Alexander Hamilton written on February 16, 1781, requesting the addressee to report at George Washington's headquarters. A letter from Alexander Hamilton, Treasury Department, to George Gale, Supervisor, Maryland, was written on February 1, 1792. The last letter from Alexander Hamilton is to an unidentified recipient and written on July 21, 1794. The content of the letter concerns action upon a petition by a ship's master to avoid forfeiture and penalties.
Papers: 1790, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton, Treasury Department, to John Scott, Collector of Customs, written on June 3, 1790. Alexander Hamilton writes concerning purchasing harbor patrol boats and collecting custom and port duties.
Papers: 1790, 2 pages. A certificate from June 5, 1790, releasing Charles Hans Bruno Pollnitz from a mortgage for a certain piece of property near Bowery Lane in New York, New York.
Papers: 1791, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to his wife Elizabeth written in 1791. Alexander Hamilton informs his wife that business matters required him to stay in Philadelphia longer than he had expected.
Papers: 1791, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton, Treasury Department, to John Cochran, Commissioner of Laws, New York, written on June 15, 1791. Alexander Hamilton gives his reasons why states should not have to pay interest on stock certificates.
Papers: 1792, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Henry Glen written on June 26, 1792. Alexander Hamilton writes about a visit from Mr. Van Inger at the Department of the Treasury on behalf of Henry Glen.
Papers: 1792, 1 page. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Sharp Delany written on July 13, 1792. Alexander Hamilton requests that the hydrometers in transit to Sharp Delany's office be sent to several ports and receipts obtained for each upon delivery.
Papers: 1792, 1 page. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to the President and directors of the Bank of the United States written on December 12, 1792 while he served as Secretary of the Treasury. Alexander Hamilton requests that they lend "Young and Dannacker" such further sums of money as will amount to $10,000 with previous loans.
Papers: In the Hamilton Family Papers, ca. 1768-1906, 92 items. The papers include correspondence between Alexander Hamilton and William Duer concerning Alexander Hamilton's bank plan, government protection for the colony of Gallipolis, William Duer's political difficulties, and other political and personal issues, as well as miscellaneous legal papers. An item list for the papers is available in the repository.

Ohio Historical Society

Columbus, OH
Papers: 1790, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to an unidentified recipient written on July 13, 1790. Alexander Hamilton writes that he received a letter by Mr. Franklin, as well as Mr. Henry's and Mr. Bayard's interpretation of the letter. Alexander Hamilton also mentions the death of General Smallwood.

The Rosenbach Museum & Library

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: 1789, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to George Clinton written on November 21, 1789. Alexander Hamilton requests information on the states' debts and the public securities of the Union in their treasuries.
Papers: 1794, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Thomas Mifflin written on October 10, 1794. Alexander Hamilton writes concerning the use of the militia to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion.

South Carolina Historical Society Library

Charleston, SC
Papers: 1781, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to John Laurens written on February 4, 1781. Alexander Hamilton writes concerning movements and operations of the British and Continental armies in South Carolina, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, and discusses a motion made by General Schuyler, in Congress proposing a convention of the states to achieve "a solid confederation to give sufficient powers to Congress for calling forth the resources of the country... for the support of the war." Alexander Hamilton also mentions the importance of foreign loans.

Temple University Libraries
Special Collections

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: 1794, 0.1 cubic foot. A note from the Treasury Department addressed to Thomas Willing, President of the Bank of the United States signed by Alexander Hamilton, then Secretary of the Treasury, signed by Alexander Hamilton on May 16, 1794. The note authorizes Edmund Randolph, Secretary of State, to be paid $900 for "certain expenses which have occurred in the West Indies in relation to public service." The order was issued before congressional authorization and receipt by Edmund Randolph on May 15th.

Texas Tech University Libraries

Lubbock, TX
Papers: In the Samuel Weiselberg Autographs Collection, n.d., 1 page. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Peter Colt. In the note, Alexander Hamilton explains the lettering delivered by Mr. Binks to Peter Colt concerning the immigrant situation.

U. S. Military Academy Library
Special Collections

West Point, NY
Papers: ca. 1783, 1 page. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Mr. Wooster written around August 22, 1783. In the letter, Alexander Hamilton writes: "Mr. Hamilton compliments to Mr. Wooster. General Stewart has been under some misapprehensions respecting Mr. Hamilton's desire to see Mr. Wooster."
Papers: 1799, 6 pages. A report from Alexander Hamilton to the Secretary of War, proposing a basic plan for the organization, administration and curriculum of a national military academy.

University of California
The Bancroft Library

Berkeley, CA
Papers: 1777, 1 page. This document contains orders from Alexander Hamilton to Major General Benjamin Lincoln notifying to prepare for a march, written on June 4, 1777.
Papers: 1791, 2 pages. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to William Rawle written on September 30, 1791. Alexander Hamilton writes concerning a court case in Pennsylvania.

University of Chicago Library
Special Collections, Manuscripts

Chicago, IL
Papers: In the Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1792, 1 item. A letter from Alexander Hamilton to Nathaniel Appleton written on March 5, 1792. Alexander Hamilton writes concerning Treasury Department matters.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Abercrombie, James. A Sermon, Occasioned by the death of Major Gen. Alexander Hamilton, who was killed by Aaron Burr, Esq., Vice President of the United States, in a duel, July 11, 1804. Philadelphia, PA: H. Maxwell, 1804.

Alexander, Holmes Moss. To Covet Honor: A Biography of Alexander Hamilton. Belmont, Mass.: Western Islands, 1977.

Aly, Bower. The Rhetoric of Alexander Hamilton. 1941. Reprint, New York: Russell & Russell, 1965.

Atherton, Gertrude Franklin Horn. The Conqueror; A Dramatized Biography of Alexander Hamilton. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1916.

Bailey, Ralph Edward. An American Colossus; The Singular Career of Alexander Hamilton. Illustrated from photographs. Boston: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., 1933.

Baldwin, Joseph G. (Joseph Glover). Party Leaders; Sketches of Thomas Jefferson, Alex'r Hamilton, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, John Randolph, of Roanoke, Including Notices of Many Other Distinguished American Statesmen. 1855. Reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1972.

Bartram, F. S. Retrographs: Comprisiong a history of New York City prior to the Revolution; Biographies of George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Nathan Hale; Sketches of John Andre and Beverly Robinson; Schemes of Aaron Burr, Benedict Arnold. New York: Yale Publishing Company, 1888.

Bernstein, Leonard H. "Alexander Hamilton and Political Factions in New York to 1787," Ph. D. diss., New York University, 1970.

Boutell, Lewis Henry. Alexander Hamilton, The Constructive Statesman. Chicago, S. Thompson, & Co., 1890.

Bowers, Claude G. Jefferson and Hamilton; The Struggle for Democracy in America. 1925. Reprint edition, St. Clair Shores, MI: Scholarly Press, 1972.

Boyd, Julian P. Number 7, Alexander Hamilton's Secret Attempts to Control American Foreign Policy, with supporting documents. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1964.

Bramble, Max Edward. "Alexander Hamilton and Nineteenth-Century American Historians: A Study of Selected Interpretations of Hamilton," Ph. D. diss., Michigan State University, 1968.

Brice, Charles S. "Alexander Hamilton: Building the Nation," M. A. Thesis, University of Texas at El Paso, 1950.

Brookhiser, Richard. Alexander Hamilton, American. Thorndike, Maine: Thorndike Press, 1999.

Brown, Stuart Gerry. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Washington Square Press, 1967.

Burr, Samuel Engle. The Burr-Hamilton Duel & Related Matters; A Statement. Aledo, Tex.: Burr Publications, 1971.

Burton, Alma H. Four American Patriots, Patrick Henry, Alexander Hamilton, Andrew Jackson, Ulysses S. Grant; A Book for Young Americans. New York & Chicago: Werner Schoolbook Co., 1898.

Caldwell, Lynton K. The Administrative Theories of Hamilton & Jefferson: Their Contribution to Thought on Public Administration. 1944. Reprint edition, New York: Holmes & Meier, 1988.

Cantor, Milton. Hamilton. Englewod Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

Chan, Michael D. "The Sinews of Liberty and Virtue: Aristotle and Hamilton on Political Economy and Statesmanship," Ph. D. diss., Claremont Graduate University, 2003.

___. Aristotle and Hamilton on Commerce and Statesmanship. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2006.

Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.

Chidsey, Donald Barr. Mr. Hamilton and Mr. Jefferson. Nashville: T. Nelson, [1975].

Clemens, Jeremiah. The Rivals; A Tale of the Times of Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1860.

Coleman, William. A Collection of the Facts and Documents, Relative to the Death of Major-General Alexander Hamilton, With Comments; Together with the Various Orations, Sermons, and Eulogies, that have been published or written on his life and character...by the editor of the Evening Post. 1804. Reprint edition, Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1969.

Cooke, Jacob Ernest. Alexander Hamilton. 1967. Reprint edition, New York: Scribner's, 1982.

Conant, Charles A. Alexander Hamilton. Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin, and Co., 1901.

Crosby, Richard Wheeler. "Alexander Hamilton's Political Principles: Natural Rights, Democracy, and the Good Regime," Ph. D. diss., Cornell University, 1970.

Crouse, Anna Erskine, and Russel Crouse. Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr: Their Lives, Their Times, Their Duel. Illustrated by Walter Buehr. New York: Random House, [1958].

Culbertson, William Smith. Alexander Hamilton; An Essay. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1911.

Daniels, Jonathan. Ordeal of Ambition: Jefferson, Hamilton, Burr. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970.

Ellis, Edward S. Alexander Hamilton: A Character Sketch...with Anecdotes, Characteristics, and Chronology. Chicago, IL: The University Assocation, 1898.

Emery, Noemie. Alexander Hamilton: An Intimate Portrait. New York: Putnam, 1982.

Emery, Scott Russell. "The American Presidential Election of 1800: The Intrigues of Alexander Hamilton," M. A. Thesis, California State University, Fullerton, 2004.

Flaumenhaft, Harvey. "The Administrative Republic of Alexander Hamilton," Ph. D. diss., University of Chicago, 1980.

___. The Effective Republic: Administration and Constitution in the Thought of Alexander Hamilton. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.

Fleming, Thomas J. Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Future of America. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

Flexner, James Thomas. The Young Hamilton: A Biography. 1978. Reprint, New York: Fordham University Press, 1997.

Ford, Henry Jones. Alexander Hamilton. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1920.

Granrud, John E. (John Evenson). Five Years of Alexander Hamilton's Public Life, 1786-1791. N.p., 1894.

Green, Richard Todd. "Oracle at Weehawken: Alexander Hamilton and Development of the Administrative State," Ph. D. diss., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1987.

Hacker, Louis Morton. Alexander Hamilton in the American Tradition. 1957. Reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1975.

Hale, Mary Ann. "John Adams and Alexander Hamilton: A Clash of Styles," M. A. Thesis, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2003.

Hall, Margaret E. (Margaret Esther). Alexander Hamilton Reader; A Compilation of Materials By, and Commenting on, Hamilton. New York: Oceana Publications, 1957.

Hamilton, Alexander. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson: Representative Selections, with Introduction, Bibliography, and Notes by Frederick C. Prescott. New York & Cincinnati, OH: American Book Co., 1934.

___. Alexander Hamilton: Selections Representing His Life, His Thought, and His Style. New York: Liberal Arts, 1957.

___. Alexander Hamiltion's Pay Book. Edited by E. P. Panagopoulos. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1961.

___. The Basic Ideas of Alexander Hamilton. New York: Pocket Books, 1956.

___. Citizen Hamilton: The Wit and Wisdom of an American Founder. Edited by Donald R. Hickey and Connie D. Clark. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

___. Documents Relating to American Economic History: Selections from the Official Reports. Arranged by Felix Flügel. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1929.

___. A Few of Hamilton's Letters, Including His Description of the Great West Indian Hurricane of 1772. Edited by Gertrude Atherton. New York: MacMillan, 1903.

___. The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution, As Agreed Upon by the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787. 1788. Reprint, special ed. leaf book. Union, J.J.: Lawbook Exchange; Mansfield Centre, Conn.: Martino Pub., 2001.

___. Federalist. A Commentary on the Constitution of the United States. A Collection of Essays, by Alexander Hamilton, Jay, and Madison. Also the Continentalist and other papers, by Hamilton. 1864. Reprint, edited, with an introduction, by Robert Scisliano, 2000.

___. Hamiltonian Principles: Extracts from the Writings of Alexander Hamilton. Selected and Edited by James Truslow Adams. Boston: Little, Brown, 1928.

___. Industrial and Commercial Correspondence of Alexander Hamilton Anticipating His Report on Manufactures. Edited by Arthur Harrison Cole. With a Preface by Edwin F. Gay. 1928. Reprint edition, New York: A. M. Kelley, 1968.

___. The Official and Other Papers of the late Major-General Alexander Hamilton. New York & London: Wiley & Putnam, 1842.

___. The Mind of Alexander Hamilton. Arranged and with an introduction by Saul K. Padover. New York: Harper, 1958.

___. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 26 vols. Edited by Harold C. Syrrett and Jacob E. Cooke. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961-1987.

___. Papers on Public Credit, Commerce and Finance, by Alexander Hamilton. Edited by Samuel McKee, Jr...with a Foreword by Elihu Root. 1934. Reprint edition, New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1957.

___. The Political Reformer. Philadelphia: Printed for the author, by W. W. Woodward, 1797.

___. Practical Proceedings in the Supreme Court of the State of New York: Hamilton's Practice Manual. New York: New York Law Journal, 2004.

___. Propositions of Colonel Hamilton, of New-York, in the Convention for Establishing a Constitutional Government for the United States. Pittsfield, MA: Printed by P. Allen, 1802.

___. The Revolutionary Writings of Alexander Hamilton. Edited and with an introduction by Richard B. Vernier; with a Foreword by Joyce O. Appleby. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 2008.

___. Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the Subject of a Mint. Philadelphia, PA: W. Young, 1791.

___. Selected Writings and Speeches of Alexander Hamilton. Morton J. Frisch, editor. Washington, D. C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1985.

___. The Works of Alexander Hamilton, Comprising His Most Important Official Reports; An Improved Edition of the Federalist, on the new Constitution, written in 1788; and Pacificus, on the Proclamation of Neutrality, written in 1793. Three Volumes. New York: Williams and Whiting, 1810.

___. The Works of Alexander Hamilton: Comprising His Correspondence, and His Political and Official Writings, Exclusive of the Federalist, Civil and Military. Seven Volumes. New York: J. F. Trow, 1850-51.

___. The Works of Alexander Hamilton: Comprising His Correspondence, and His Political and Official Writings, Exclusive of the Federalist, Civil and Military. Four Volumes. New York: C. S. Francis & Co., 1851.

___. The Works of Alexander Hamilton. Nine Volumes. New York & London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1885-86.

___. The Works of Alexander Hamilton. Twelve Volumes. New York & London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904.

___. Writings. New York: Library of America: Distributed to the trade in the United States by Penguin Putnam, 2001.

Hamilton, Alexander, and Arthur Harrison Cole. Industrial and Commercial Correspondence of Alexander Hamilton Anticipating His Report on Manufactures. With a preface by Edwin F. Gay. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1968.

Hamilton, Alexander, and Henry Cabot Lodge, ed. The Works of Alexander Hamilton. New York: Haskell House Publishers, 1971.

Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay (writing as Publius). The Federalist. With The Letters of Brutus/ [both works] edited by Terence Ball. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, John Jay, and Bob Blaiddell, ed. Selected Federalist Papers. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2001.

Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, John Jay, and Clinton Rossiter, ed. The Federalist Papers. With a new introduction and annotations by Charles R. Resler. New York: Mentor, 1999.

Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, John Jay, and Henry Steele Commager, ed. Selections from the Federalist: A Commentary on the Constitution of the United States. Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1985], 1949.

Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, John Jay, Robert Scigliano, ed. The Federalist: A Commentary on the Constitution of the United States. Modern Library ed. New York: Modern Library, 2000.

Hamilton, Alexander, and Julius Goebel, Jr., ed. The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton; Documents and Commentary. Associate editors: Francis K. Decker, Jr. [and others]. New York: Published under the auspices of the William Nelson Cromwell Foundation by Columbia University Press, 1964-1981.

Hamilton, Alexander, and Mary-Jo Kline, ed. Alexander Hamilton; A Biography In His Own Words. With an introduction by Harold C. Syrett. Joan Paterson Kerr, picture editor. New York: Newsweek; distributed by Harper & Row, 1973.

Hamilton, Alexander, and Morton J. Frisch, eds. Selected Writings and Speeches of Alexander Hamilton. Washington: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1985.

Hamilton, Alexander, and Quentin P. Taylor, ed. The Essential Federalist: A New Reading of the Federalist Papers. Madison, Wis.: Madison House, 1998.

Hamilton, Alexander, and Richard B. Morris, ed. Alexander Hamilton and the Founding of the Nation. 1957. Reprint, New York: Harper & Row, 1969.

Hamilton, John C. The Life of Alexander Hamilton. By His Son John C. Hamilton. New York: Halsted & Voorhees, 1834.

Harnett, Robert C. "The National Statesmanship of Alexander Hamilton," Ph. D. diss., Fordham University, 1946.

Harper, John Lamberton. American Machiavelli: Alexander Hamilton and the Origins of U.S. Foreign Policy. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Hecht, Marie B. Odd Destiny, The Life of Alexander Hamilton. New York: Macmillan, 1982.

Hendrickson, Robert A. Hamilton. New York: Mason/Charter, 1976.

___. The Rise and Fall of Alexander Hamilton. 1981. Reprint, New York: Dodd, Mead, 1985.

Hicks, Howard H. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Macmillan, 1928.

Johnson, Helene Vivan. "Alexander Hamilton and the British Orientation of American Foreign Policy, 1783-1803," Ph. D. diss., University of Southern California, 1963.

Kaplan, Lawrence S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Wilmington, Del.: SR Books, 2002.

Kennedy, Roger G. Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson: A Study in Character. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kerns, Gerald Eugene. "The Hamiltonian Constitution: An Analysis of the Interpretation Given to Various Provisions of the United States Constitution by Alexander Hamilton," Ph. D. diss., Indiana University, 1969.

Konefsky, Samuel Joseph. John Marshall and Alexander Hamilton, Architects of the American Constitution. New York: Macmillan, 1964.

Launitz-Schurer, Leopold S. "Alexander Hamiltion, Delegate to Congress," M. A. Thesis, McGill University (Canada), 1966.

Lodge, Henry Cabot. Alexander Hamilton. 1898. Reprint, introduction by Mary-Jo Kline. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House, 1997.

Looze, Helene Johnson. Alexander Hamilton and the British Orientation of American Foreign Policy, 1783-1803. The Hague: Mouton, 1969.

Lycan, Gilbert L. Alexander Hamilton & American Foreign Policy; A Design for Greatness. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.

McDonald, Forrest. Alexander Hamilton: A Biography. New York: Norton, 1979.

McDonald, John. A Sermon on the Premature and Lamented Death of General Alexander Hamilton. Albany: John Barber, 1804.

Mell, Wayne Allan. "James Wilson, Alexander Hamilton, William Blackstone: Organic Principles of Constitutional Liberty," Ph. D. diss., University of Oregon, 1976.

Miller, John Chester. Alexander Hamilton and the Growth of the New Nation. With a new introduction by A. Owen Aldridge. 1959. Reprint, New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2003.

Mitchell, Broadus. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Macmillan, 1957-62.

___. Alexander Hamilton: A Concise Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

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