GARFIELD, James Abram

GARFIELD, James Abram
Image courtesy of the Library of Congress
1831–1881

Biography

GARFIELD, James Abram, a Representative from Ohio and 20th President of the United States; born in Orange, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, November 19, 1831; attended district school; driver and helmsman on the Ohio Canal; entered Geauga Seminary, Chester, Ohio, in March 1849; attended the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (now Hiram College), Hiram, Ohio, 1851-1854; graduated from Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., 1858; teacher; professor of ancient languages and literature at the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute, Hiram, Ohio; principal of the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute, Hiram, Ohio, 1857-1861; member of the Ohio state senate 1859; lawyer, private practice; Union Army, Ohio Volunteer Infantry 1861-1863; elected as a Republican to the Thirty-eighth and to the eight succeeding Congresses and served until his resignation on November 8, 1880 (March 4, 1863-November 8, 1880); chair, Committee on Military Affairs (Fortieth Congress); chair, Committee on Banking and Currency (Forty-first Congress); chair, Committee on Appropriations (Forty-second and Forty-third Congresses); member of the Electoral Commission created by act of Congress approved January 29, 1877, to decide the contests in various States in the presidential election of 1876; elected to the United States Senate on January 13, 1880, for the term beginning March 4, 1881, but declined to accept having been elected President of the United States on November 2, 1880; elected the twentieth President of the United States in 1880 and served from March 4, 1881, until his death on September 19, 1881, in Elberon, N.J., from the effects of an assassin's attack on July 2, 1881, in Washington, D.C.; interment in Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland, Ohio.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Papers: ca. 1831-1889, approximately 80,000 items. The papers of James A. Garfield contain family, personal, and official correspondence including records of Garfield’s Civil War military service, diary (1848-1881), speeches and other public statements, legal papers, genealogical material, college notebooks, tributes, printed matter, scrapbooks, and other material relating primarily to Garfield’s career and death. Subjects include Ohio and national politics, the disputed election of 1876, tariff and national finance, Credit Mobilier of America, and the Fitz-John Porter court-martial. Other topics include education, Hiram College, the Disciples of Christ, and the Salish (Flathead) Indians. Also includes diaries, account book, and other papers (1881-1889) of Garfield’s daughter, Mary Garfield Stanley-Brown ("Mollie"). Correspondents include Chester Alan Arthur, Harmon Austin, Jeremiah S. Black, J. M. Bundy, Alexander Campbell, William E. Chandler, Julius Orrin Converse, Jacob D. Cox, John Jay Curtis, Madeleine V. Dahlgren, Ulysses S. Grant, Mark Hopkins, William Dean Howells, Robert Green Ingersoll, Francis Lieber, Thomas M. Nichol, Thomas Wharton Phillips, Albert M. Pratt, Whitelaw Reid, James H. Rhodes, A. G. Riddle, James S. Robinson, John P. Robison, William S. Rosecrans, John Sherman, Platt Rogers Spencer, and Samuel Ward. A finding aid is available in the library and online.
Papers: ca. 1879-1950, 98 linear feet. Persons represented include James A. Garfield.
Microfilm: 1853-1913, 1 reel. The papers of James A. Garfield contain correspondence (1859-1880), a memorandum book (1853-1857), an undated manuscript, telegrams and bulletins (1881) relating to Garfield’s health; and diaries, letters, and other papers (1857-1913) of Garfield’s wife, Lucretia Rudolph Garfield. Subjects include Hiram College, Ohio state politics, personal matters, and the scandal involving William W. Belknap. The original papers are in the Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, OH
Papers: In the Harry A. Garfield Papers, 1888-1934, approximately 60,000 items. Persons represented include Harry Garfield's father, James A. Garfield.
Papers: In Lucretia R. Garfield papers, 1807-1958, approximately 55,000 items. Persons represented include Lucretia Garfield's husband, James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the Frank Hastings Hamilton Papers, 1863-1887, 200 items. Documentation on President James A. Garfield is in a scrapbook of Dr. Frank Hastings Hamilton, who attended the President after he was shot.
Papers: In Almon Ferdinand Rockwell papers, 1852-1900. 3 feet (ca. 2,000 items). Includes 90 letters from Garfield and material concerning their joint investments and Garfield's assassination.

Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library

Springfield, IL
Papers: 1880, 1 item. A letter from James A. Garfield to D.C. Pavey written on August 24, 1880. In the letter, Garfield acknowledges Pavey's congratulatory letter.
Papers: 1882, 2 items. One certificate is from James Garfield's memorial service, February 27, 1882, sent to Susan Enos, Springfield, Illinois, by David Davis. A second certificate recognizes L.E. Enos's contribution to the Garfield Moument Fund.

Brigham Young University Library

Salt Lake City, UT
Papers: 1871, 1 item. A letter from James A. Garfield to Irvin McDowell written on February 11, 1871.
Papers: 1881-1882, 2 items. Letters of James Garfield.

Brooklyn Historical Society

Brooklyn, NY
Papers: October 1, 1876. 1 military appointment. Finding aid in repository.
Papers: 1880, 1 page. A letter from James A. Garfield to G.A. Foster written on June 29, 1880. In the letter, Garfield thanks Foster.
Papers: 1880, 1 page. A letter from James A. Garfield to Wellington Smith written on July 22, 1880. In the letter, Garfield writes that he is pleased that "our friends are working together harmoniously." Also, Garfield will not make any promises he cannot keep.

Brown University
John Hay Library

Providence, RI
Papers: In the Autographs and Signatures of Presidents of the United States, 1828-1927, 24 items. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the John Hay Correspondence, 1854-1914, "Fiske" to "Gilder," approximately 6,000 items. Other authors include James A. Garfield.

Bryn Mawr College Library
The Adelman Collection

Bryn Mawr, PA
Papers: 1877, 1 item. An invoice for James A. Garfield, 1877 July 21. The bill was presented to Garfield for "professional services."

Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society Archives

Buffalo, NY
Papers: 1877, 1 item. A letter from James A. Garfield to William L. Perkins written on March 24, 1877. In the letter, Garfield expresses thanks for Perkins's appreciation of his decision to decline the senatorship, which he sacrificed for the public good.
Papers: 1880, 2 items. The papers include a letter from J.A. Garfield to Ada Knowlton written in 1880, thanking her for sending a poem.

The Copley Press
J.S. Copley Library

La Jolla, CA
Papers: 1868, 2 pages. A letter from James A. Garfield to J.A. Cowing written on June 20, 1868. In the letter, Garfield writes that he appreciates the kind words about his speech on finance in which "I was developing the general principle which lies at the foundation of currency." Written on letterhead of Fortieth Congress with engraving of the Capitol.
Papers: 1877, 1 page. A printed and stamped check of the Sergeant-at-Arms, U.S. House of Representatives, paying to "myself debt Seventy nine 51/100 Dollars." Signed by J.A. Garfield.

Dartmouth College
Rauner Special Collections Library

Hanover, NH
Papers: 1880, 1 leaf. A letter from James A. Garfield to J.H. Bartlett written on June 30, 1880. In the letter, Garfield acknowledges a letter.
Papers: 1881, 2 pages. A letter from Samuel Colcord Bartlett to President-elect James A. Garfield written on January 24, 1881. In the letter, Bartlett recommends John A. Owen for a place on the bench.

Duke University Library

Durham, NC
Papers: 1880-1906, 8 items. The papers of James A. Garfield include two letters of recommendation for office seekers; an invitation to Garfield's inaugural ball; a facsimile of a letter from Garfield to Marshall Jewel, chairman of the Republican National Committee, denouncing as a forgery the Morey letter concerning Chinese immigration; an announcement of a memorial service in Garfield's honor; a certificate issued to a contributing member to the Garfield National Masonic Memorial Association of Washington, D.C.; and typescripts of two speeches, ca. 1899 and 1906, delivered by an unknown alumnus of Hiram College and containing reminiscences of classmate James A. Garfield.

Filson Historical Society
Special Collections

Louisville, KY
Papers: 1880, 1 item. A letter from James A. Garfield to Reverend W.M. Roe in Marion, Iowa, thanking Roe.

Hiram College

Hiram, OH
Papers: 1851-1881; commemorative material 1881-present. 5 feet. Collection concentrates on his association with Hiram College as student, teacher, president, and trustee; includes papers and correspondence, photographs, portraits, and memorabilia. Finding aid in progress. Restricted.

Historical Society of Washington, D.C.

Washington, DC
Papers: 1879, 1 item. A letter from James Garfield to Mr. Wilson regarding payment of a note.

Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania

Pittsburgh, PA
Papers: 1856-1881, 0.15 linear foot. The papers include a photocopy of a military commission by General Garfield (1863) and published speeches by Garfield and others (1874-1886) on reconstruction, taxation and other contemporary issues.

The Huntington Library

San Marino, CA
Papers: In the Howells-Fréchette Family Papers, 1844-1934, 176 pieces. Correspondents include James A. Garfield.

Indiana Historical Society

Indianapolis, IN
Papers: In the William Henry Smith Papers, ca. 1836-1922, 65 items. Political correspondence includes letters from James A. Garfield to Rutherford B. Hayes (1880-1881).

Lake County Historical Society

Mentor, OH
Papers: Dates unknown, approximately 3 linear feet. Correspondence, notes, inventories, guidebooks, articles, floor plans, plats, surveys, landscaping diagrams, photographs, and other materials relating to Lawnfield (officially known as the James A. Garfield Home), in Mentor, Ohio, now a national historic site under the jurisdiction of the U.S. National Park Service.

Maine Historical Society

Portland, ME
Papers: 1881, 1 item. A letter from James A. Garfield to his mother, Eliza Garfield, Hiram, written in 1881. In the letter, Garfields reassures her that witb time and patience his health would be restored, and he sends love to his sisters.

Mansfield-Richland County Public Library

Mansfield, OH
Papers: Correspondence in the John Sherman papers, 1839-1921. 46 items.

Massachusetts Historical Society

Boston, MA
Papers: In the Edward Atkinson Papers, ca. 1836-1905, 35 cartons Persons represented include James A. Garfield.

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society Library

New York, NY
Papers: 6 political broadsides. Finding aid in repository.

Oberlin College Library

Oberlin, OH
Papers: In the James Monroe Papers, 1819-1898,12.4 linear feet. Other authors include James A. Garfield.

Ohio Historical Society

Columbus, OH
Microfilm: 1853-1913, 1 reel. The papers of James A. Garfield include a memorandum book, 1853-57; copies of bulletins and telegrams, 1881, concerning Garfield's physical condition; diary, 1857-58, and other assorted items of Lucretia R. Garfield; and correspondence, including letters to Wallace J. Ford concerning Western Reserve Eclectic Institute, of which Ford was trustee and financial agent.
Papers: ca. 1878-1942, 0.25 cubic foot. Scattered papers of James A., Harry A., and Abram Garfield. Includes catalogue of memorials to James A. Garfield, copies of correspondence with Harry A. Garfield as U.S. fuel administrator (1919), and a report by Abram Garfield on the Cleveland City Plan Commission (ca. 1942).
Microfilm: In the Andre De Coppet Collection of American Historical Manuscripts, 1854-1936, 1 reel. The papers contain selected letters, documents, and portraits of James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the G. Volney Dorsey Papers 1834-1893, 18 items. The papers include a letter from James A. Garfield to G. Volney Dorsey written on December 23, 1880.
Papers: In the Orramel H. Fitch Papers, 1828-1935, 0.25 cubic foot. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the John H. Klippart Papers, 1833-1933, 13 cubic feet. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the Anson G. McCook Papers, 1880, 2 items. A telegram from President-Elect James A. Garfield to Anson McCook from November 8, 1880, congratulating him on his congressional victory.
Papers: In the Emerson Opdycke Papers, ca. 1861-1913, 2 cubic feet. Persons represented include James A. Garfield. The papers also are available on microfilm.
Microfilm: In the William Henry Smith Papers, 1855-1895, 7 microfilm reels. Correspondents include James A. Garfield.

Princeton University Libraries

Princeton, NJ
Papers: In the Andre deCoppet collection, 1566-1942. ca. 3,700 items.

Rosenbach Museum and Library

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: 1861, 1 item. A letter from James A. Garfield to J.H. Jones written on October 4, 1861. In the letter, Garfield invites Jones to join a party of Hiram College friends in a visit to the regiment in camp.
Papers: 1866, 1 item. A letter from James A. Garfield to J.T. Callin written on May 28, 1866. In the letter, Garfield writes concerning the prospects for his candidacy in the upcoming Congressional election.
Papers: 1870-1881, 1 volume. The collection includes letters from James A. Garfield to Charles Nordhoff, editor of the New York Evening Post, 11 May 1870, and General H.M. Cist, corresponding secretary of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland, 17 June 1873. Also included are portraits of Garfield and autographs of his cabinet members. Additionally, there are two letters by Charles J. Guiteau, Garfield's assassin, and autographs of Guiteau, his attorney, warden, judge, and jury.
Papers: 1881, 1 item. A second medical bulletin on James Garfield's condition issued to the public after his move to New Jersey. Written in the hand of Dr. D.W. Bliss and signed by him and five other physicians including D. Hayes Agnew, Frank H. Hamilton, Robert Reyburn, and Joseph Janvier Woodward. With an ANS by Bliss, 10 December 1884, certifying this was the original bulletin with original signatures.
Papers: In the United States Sanitary Commission Subscription Book for Facsimiles of the Emancipation Proclamation, ca. 1863, 1 item. Signers include James A. Garfield.

Smith College
In the Miscellaneous Manuscript Collection, Mortimer Rare Book Room

Northampton, MA
Papers: 1878-1879, 2 items. A letter from James A. Garfield to W. W. Warren written on February 8, 1878. The letter is on letterhead: House of Representatives, Committee of Ways and Means, Washington, D.C. Garfield responds to a letter of Warren's in response to Garfield's speech on the "resumption act." -- Telegraph draft, 1879 Apr. 17 to Jn. Sherman, reads as follows: "Do you want the legal tender function subsidiary silver coin extended ten dollars? Answer soon." On telegraph heading: Departmental telegraph lines ... House of Representatives, U. S."

Southern Methodist University
Bridwell Library

Dallas, TX
Papers: 1878, 1 item. A letter from James A. Garfield to Horace Steele written on September 25, 1878. In the letter, Garfield reflects on recent political developments in Colorado and the "silver question" as reported by a Mr. Higley of Youngstown.

Texas Tech University
Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library

Lubbock, TX
Papers: 1865, 1 leaf. A letter from James A. Garfield to J.A.J. Creswell written on December 12, 1865. In the letter, Garfield introduces himself to J.A.J. Creswell about a Mr. Doekelader, a friend of General Schenck and James A. Garfield.

University of California, Berkeley
Bancroft Library

Berkeley, CA
Papers: In the J. Ross Browne Letters, 1849-1859, 1 portfolio. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the Edwin Allen Sherman Papers, ca. 1872-1971, 2.1 linear feet. Other authors include James A. Garfield.

University of California, Santa Barbara
Department of Special Collections, Davidson Library

Santa Barbara, CA
Papers: 1861 and 1881, 1 folder. One Civil War letter by James A. Garfield, major general in the Union Army and future President, to Colonel Lionel A. Sheldon, criticizing the President's [Abraham Lincoln's] conduct of the war and noting that "Halleck is as cold and apparently heartless as a stone about the war, McClellan will never do any more than Buell did - and nearly every man that had any positive opinions about pushing the war is either without any command or is where he can do nothing." Washington, 2 Nov. 1862. Also an extra edition of The Chronicle, 21 Sept. 1881, concerning the death of Garfield and an invitation to the "Obsequies of the Late President Garfield," to be held in San Francisco, 26 Sept. 1881.

University of Chicago Library
Department of Special Collections

Chicago, IL
Papers: 1871-1881, approximately 350 items. The collection contains three letters by James A. Garfield, newspaper clippings, campaign ribbons and buttons, family photographs, a scrapbook, and other memorabilia. Material relates primarily to Garfield's 1880 political campaign, inauguration, and death. Includes clippings and facsimile bulletins concerning the assassination of the President by Charles Guiteau, souvenirs of memorial services, and correspondence to the Rev. James S. Hoyt of Massachusetts about his memorial sermon for Garfield.

University of Maine at Orono

Orono, ME
Papers: 1877-1880, 1 folder. Three letters from James A. Garfield, Mentor, Ohio, to John P. Haire, Janesville, Wisconsin. The letters are dated May 14, 1877; June 22, 1880; and Nov. 6, 1880.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library

Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: In the Louis Evans Ayres Papers, 1861-1973, 0.25 linear foot. The papers include a letter from James A. Garfield written in August 1861 describing Civil War activities.
Papers: In the Henry S. Frieze Papers, 1838-1920, approximately 600 items and 18 volumes. Correspondents include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the Hinsdale Family Papers, 1857-1963, 2 linear feet. Correspondents include James A. Garfield.

University of Virginia
Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library

Charlottesville, VA
Papers: 1881, 1 item. A letter from Mark Twain to James A. Garfield written on January 12, 1881. In the letter, Twain asks President-elect Garfield to keep Frederick Douglass in his position as marshal of the District of Columbia. Clemens refers to Douglass's "high + blemishless character" and "his brave long crusade for the liberties + elevation of his race."

University of Wyoming
American Heritage Center

Laramie, WY
Papers: In the Irving Asher Papers, 1880-1975, 1.25 cubic feet. Correspondents include James A. Garfield.

Washington State University
Special Collections

Pullman, WA
Papers: 1880, 3 items. Autographs, a portrait, and a regular Republican ticket with names of presidential electors relating to James A. Garfield.

Western Reserve Historical Society

Cleveland, OH
Papers: 1857-1936, 4.1 linear feet. The papers of James A. Garfield contain correspondence, a diary (1873), and newspaper clippings, relating to Garfield's career and assassination, Garfield Monument in Lakeview Cemetery, Cleveland, and the establishment of Lawnfield, his home in Mentor, Ohio, as a memorial museum. Includes correspondence (1874-1900) of his wife, Lucretia Rudolph Garfield. Correspondents include N.L. Chaffee, Burke A. Hinsdale, Frederick Kinsman, and Charles Whittlesey.
Papers: In the James A. Garfield Family Papers, Series II, 1871-1937, 0.2 linear foot. Persons represented include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the James A. Garfield Family Papers, Series III, 1859-1990, 3.1 linear feet. Persons represented include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the Jesse Baldwin Papers, 1862-1881, 4 volumes. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the Warner M. Bateman Papers, 1849-1897, 8.8 linear feet. Correspondents include James A. Garfield. The collection also is available on microfilm.
Papers: In the Henry B. Boynton Papers, 1854-1887, 0.2 linear foot. The papers include letters to Henry Boynton from his cousin, President James A. Garfield, clippings relating to Garfield's death, and journal (1854-56) kept by Boynton and his brother, William A. Boynton, student at Hiram Eclectic Institute and bookseller.
Papers: In the John Butler Papers, 1862-1885, 0.4 linear foot. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the John Healy Papers, 1857-1932, 0.25 linear foot. Correspondents include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the B. A. (Burke Aaron) Hinsdale Papers, 1854-1901, 2.3 linear feet. The papers document B.A. Hinsdale's association with James A. Garfield, and his writing of The Works of James Abram Garfield (1882-83), containing information on Garfield's early life and the Republican convention of 1880.
Papers: In the Peter Hitchcock Family Papers, 1788-1898, 19.8 linear feet. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the William L. McMillen Papers, 1852-1896, 72 items. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the A. G. Riddle Papers, 1835-1902, 2.6 linear feet. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the David Gaskill Swaim Papers, 1861-1874, 4 linear feet. Persons represented include James A. Garfield.
Papers: In the Walter B. Wright Scrapbooks, ca. 1840-1936, 0.83 linear foot. Other authors include James A. Garfield.

Williams College
Archives & Special Colletions

Williamstown, MA
Papers: ca. 1853-1951, 3.5 linear feet. The collection documents primarily the campaign, assassination and death of President James A. Garfield, 1880-1881, through clippings, cartoons, sheet music, programs and other ephemera. Also included is Garfield's correspondence from, or relating to, Williams College.
Papers: In the Paul A. Chadbourne Papers, 1849-1886, 2 linear feet. Other authors include James A. Garfield.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Ackerman, Kenneth D. The Dark Horse: The Surprise Election and Political Murder of President James A. Garfield. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2003.

Bates, Richard O. The gentleman from Ohio; an introduction to Garfield. Durham, N.C.: Moore Pub. Co., [1973].

Booraem, Hendrik. The road to respectability: James A. Garfield and his world, 1844-1852. Lewisburg, [Pa.]: Bucknell University Press, 1988.

Brisbin, James S., and William R. Balch. The Life and Public Career of Gen. James A. Garfield. Philadelphia: Hubard Bros., 1880.

Brown, Harry James. "Garfield's Congress." Hayes Historical Journal 3 (Fall 1981): 57-77.

Caldwell, Robert Granville. James A. Garfield, Party Chieftain. New York: Dodd Mead, 1931.

Carr, Joseph D. "Garfield and Marshall in the Big Sandy Valley, 1861-1862." Filson Club History Quarterly 64 (April 1990): 247-63.

Clark, James C. The Murder of James A. Garfield: The President's Last Days and the Trial and Execution of his Assassin. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1993.

Dawes, Henry L. "Garfield and Conkling. Century 47 (1893-1894): 341-44.

Doak, Robin S. James A. Garfield. Minneapolis, Minn.: Compass Point Books, 2003.

Doenecke, Justus D. The Presidencies of James A. Garfield & Chester A. Arthur. Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1981.

Garfield, James A. The American Census. New York: Nation Press, 1869.

------. Amnesty. Speech of Hon. James A. Garfield, of Ohio, in reply to Hon. B. H. Hill, of Georgia, in the House of Representatives. [Washington: N.p., 1876].

------. Carpenter's painting, Lincoln and emancipation. Washington: Darby & Duvall, printers, 1878.

------. College Education. Cleveland: Fairbanks, Benedict & Co., printers, 1867.

------. The Currency. Washington: F. & J. Rives & G. A. Bailey, 1868.

------. Debate on the currency bill. [Washington: Congressional Globe Office, 1870].

------. The Diary of James Abram Garfield. Edited by Harry James Brown and Frederick D. Williams. 4 vols. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1967-1981.

------. Elements of Success. [Washington]: Gibson Brothers, printers, 1869.

------. Enforcement of the Fourteenth amendment. Washington: F. & J. Rives & G. A. Bailey, reporters and printers, 1871.

------. National Politics. [Warren, Ohio: N.p., 1866].

------. Ninth Census. Washington: F. & I. Rives & G. A. Bailey, 1869.

------. Obedience to the law of the foremost duty of Congress. Washington: [Government Printing Office], 1880.

------. Oration on the life and character of Gen. George H. Thomas, delivered before the Society of the Army of the Cumberland by Gen, James A. Garfield, at the fourth annual reunion, Cleveland, November 25, 1870. Cincinnati: R. Clarke & Co., 1871.

------. Politics and patronage in the gilded age; the correspondence of James A. Garfield and Charles E. Henry. Edited by James D. Norris and Arthur H. Shaffer. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1970.

------. Public expenditures--Their increase and diminution. [Washington: Printed at the Congressional Globe Office, 1872].

------. Remarks of Hon. Jas. A. Garfield, of Ohio, in the House of Representatives, April 14, 1866, in memory of Abraham Lincoln. Washington: H. Taylor, printer, 1866.

------. Revenues and expenditures. [Washington, D.C.]: J. H. Cunningham, printer, [1874].

------. Review of the transactions of the Credit Mobilier Company, and an examination of that portion of the testimony taken by the committee of investigation and reported to the House of Representatives at the last session of the Forty-second Congress, which relates to Mr. Garfield. Washington, D.C.: N.p., 1880.

------. Revolution in Congress. Washington: R. O. Polkinhorn, printer, 1879.

------. Speech of Hon. James A. Garfield, of Ohio, on the confiscation of property of rebels. [Washington: Printed by L. Towers, 1864].

------. Speech of Hon. James A. Garfield, of Ohio, on the McGarrahan Claim. Washington?: N.p., 1871].

------. Speeches of Hon. James A. Garfield, of Ohio, in the House of Representatives at the extra session. Washington: [Government Printing Office], 1879.

------. Suspension and resumption of specie payments. Address of Hon. James A. Garfield, delivered at Chicago, Ill., Jan. 2d, 1879. Chicago, Ill.: The Honest Money League of the Northwest, 1879.

------. The tariff. Speech of Hon. James A. Garfield, of Ohio ... in the House of Representatives, April 1, 1870. [Washington?: N.p., 1870].

------. Taxation of United States bonds. Washington: F. & J. Rives & G. A. Bailey, reporters and printers of the debates of Congress, 1868.

------. The Works of James Abram Garfield. Edited by Burke A. Hinsdale. 1882-83. Reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, [1970].

Garfield, Lucretia Rudolph. Crete and James: Personal letters of Lucretia and James Garfield. Edited by John Shaw. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1994.

Geary, Rick. The fatal bullet: A true account of the assassination, lingering pain, death, and burial of James A. Garfield, twentieth president of the United States; also including the inglorious life and career of the despised assassin Guiteau. Adapted & illustrated by Rick Geary. New York: NBM, 1999.

Hatfield, Mark O. "James A. Garfield: A Man Called, A People Saved." Hayes Historical Journal 3 (Fall 1981): 21-30.

Hinsdale, Burke A., ed. The Works of James Abram Garfield. 2 vols. 1882. Reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books For Libraries Press, 1970.

Joseph, Paul. James A. Garfield. Edina, Minn.: Abdo Pub. Co., 2000.

Kingsbury, Robert. The Assassination of James A. Garfield. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2002.

Leech, Margaret, and Harry J. Brown. The Garfield Orbit: The Life of James A. Garfield. New York: Harper and Row, 1978.

McElroy, Richard L. James A. Garfield: His Life & Times: A Pictorial History. Canton, Ohio: Daring Books, 1986.

Norris, James D., and James K. Martin, eds. "Three Civil War Letters of James A. Garfield." Ohio History 74 (Autumn 1965): 247-52.

Peskin, Allan. Garfield. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1978.

------. "Garfield and Hayes, Political Leaders of the Gilded Age." Ohio Historical Ouarterly 77 (1968): 111-224.

------. "The Hero of the Sandy Valley: James A. Garfield's Kentucky Campaign of 1861-1862." Ohio History 72 (January 1963): 3-24, (April 1963): 129-39.

------. "James A. Garfield: 1831-1863." Ph.D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 1965.

------. "President Garfield and the Southern Question: The Making of the Policy that Never Was." Southern Ouarterly 16 (July 1978): 375-86.

Sawyer, Robert W. "James A. Garfield and the Classics." Hayes Historical Journal 3 (Fall 1981): 47-56.

Smith, Theodore Clarke. The Life and Letters of James Abram Garfield. 2 vols. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1925.

Taylor, John M. Garfield of Ohio, the Available Man. New York: Norton, [1970].

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