LINCOLN, Abraham

LINCOLN, Abraham
Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives
About this object


LINCOLN, Abraham, a Representative from Illinois and 16th President of the United States; born in Hardin County, Ky., February 12, 1809; moved with his parents to a tract on Little Pigeon Creek, Ind., in 1816; attended a log-cabin school at short intervals and was self-instructed in elementary branches; moved with his father to Macon County, Ill., in 1830 and later to Coles County, Ill.; read the principles of law and works on surveying; during the Black Hawk War he volunteered in a company of Sangamon County Rifles organized April 21, 1832; was elected its captain and served until May 27, when the company was mustered out of service; reenlisted as a private and served until mustered out June 16, 1832; returned to New Salem, Ill., and was unsuccessful as a candidate for the State house of representatives; entered business as a general merchant in New Salem; postmaster of New Salem 1833-1836; deputy county surveyor 1834-1836; elected a member of the State house of representatives in 1834, 1836, 1838, and 1840; declined to be a candidate for renomination; admitted to the bar in 1836; moved to Springfield, Ill., in 1837 and engaged in the practice of law; elected as a Whig to the Thirtieth Congress (March 4, 1847-March 3, 1849); did not seek a renomination in 1848; an unsuccessful applicant for Commissioner of the General Land Office under President Taylor; tendered the Governorship of Oregon Territory, but declined; unsuccessful Whig candidate for election to the United States Senate before the legislature of 1855; unsuccessful Republican candidate for the United States Senate in 1858; elected as a Republican President of the United States in 1860; reelected in 1864 and served from March 4, 1861, until his death; shot by an assassin in Washington, D.C., April 14, 1865, and died the following day; lay in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol, April 19-21, 1865; interment in Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, Ill.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library

Springfield, IL
Papers: 1832-1865. 2 feet. Personal, business, and congressional papers and correspondence, photographs, portraits, and memorabilia. Manuscripts only a portion of the larger collection which contains over 10,000 books titles, 1,000 broadsides, 1,000 prints, and any medium which portrays Lincoln or comments on his life. Finding aid in repository. Restricted.

Boston Public Library

Boston, MA
Papers: 3 letters and an unspecified number of documents.

Boston University

Boston, MA
Papers: Edward Carlton Stone collection of Lincoln letters, 1860-1865. 95 items. Indexed in library's card catalog. Restricted.

Brooklyn Historical Society

Brooklyn, NY
Papers: 6 items of official correspondence (1861-1864) and 7 miscellaneous documents (1858-1911). Finding aid in repository.

Brown University

Providence, RI
Papers: McLellan Lincoln collection, 1789-1939. 1,678 items. Correspondence, documents, and other papers. Published description. Also photocopies and microfilm of originals in other collections.

Cambridge Historical Society

Cambridge, MA
Papers: In the Quincy-Hill-Phillips-Treadwell papers,1699-1969, 2 file boxes (0.83 linear foot). Correspondents include Abraham Lincoln.

Columbia University
Rare Book and Manuscript Library

New York, NY
Papers: ca. 500 items (1860-1934) in the John Wesley Hill collection.

Detroit Public Library
Burton Historical Collection

Detroit, MI
Papers: In Edgar De Witt Jones papers, 1844-1955. ca. 1,090 items. In part photocopies or facsimiles of Lincoln correspondence. Card index in library.

Duke University Library

Durham, NC
Papers: In U.S. Presidents' papers, 1753-1935. 202 items. Card index in library.

Georgetown University Library

Washington, DC
Papers: David Rankin Barbee papers, 1886-1956. 25 feet. Focus on events leading up to assassination and on people near the event. Finding aid in library.
Papers: E.H. Swaim collection, 1893-1980. 7 feet. Focus on career of John Wilkes Booth after assassination. Finding aid in library.
Papers: Eugene Boss collection. Especially political ephemera, signed documents, and autographs.
Papers: Lincoln collection of Earl Kubicek. Printed books, pamphlets, journal issues, and other items.

Huntington Library

San Marino, CA
Papers: Lincoln file, 1811-1922. 1,275 items. Artificially assembled collection of Lincolniana written to, by, or about Lincoln, including much about his legal practice and business matters.

Illinois State Archives

Springfield, IL
Papers: 1832-1861. Legislative material, documents and correspondence, and family-related items, all related to his service in state legislature. Index in repository.

Indiana Historical Society

Indianapolis, IN
Papers: 14 scattered letters and documents.

Knox College Archives

Galesburg, IL
Papers: 1843-1855. ca. 10 items. Reports of legal cases in Springfield, in which Lincoln served as an attorney. Finding aid in repository.
Papers: 1830-1865, 20th century. 2 feet. Transcripts and photocopies of letters and documents by or about Lincoln concerning his legal and political career. Also printed material. Unpublished calendar in repository.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Papers: 1774-1948. 213 containers. Correspondence and other papers, mainly letters addressed to Lincoln as President. Published index. Also on microfilm (97 reels).
Papers: Herndon-Weik collection of Lincolniana, ca. 1830-1927. 36 containers. Partial calendar. Register. Also on microfilm (15 reels).
Papers: Subject collection (birth), 1894-1946. 8 items.
Papers: Subject collection (centennial), 1909. 1 item.
Papers: In Mary Todd Lincoln collection, 1861-1909. 19 items.
Papers: 1831-1866. 1 reel of microfilm. Originals in Huntington Library.
Papers: 1838-1934. 2 reels of microfilm. Originals in New York Public Library.

Library of Congress
Rare Book Division

Washington, DC
Papers: The Alfred Whital Stern collection of Lincolniana, 1837-1912. 2 feet.

Lincoln Memorial University
Department of Lincolniana

Harrogate, TN
Papers: 1838-1864. ca. 50 items. Includes correspondence, documents, and law briefs.

Lincoln National Life Foundation

Fort Wayne, IN
Papers: Manuscript materials by, about, or associated with Lincoln, including over 100 letters and autographs.

Missouri Historical Society

St. Louis, MO
Papers: 1839-1947. ca. 200 items.

New-York Historical Society

New York, NY
Papers: 1860-1865. 137 items.

New York Public Library

New York, NY
Papers: 1849-1865. 52 items. Photocopies of originals privately owned. Inventory in library.

Ohio Historical Society

Columbus, OH
Papers: 1861-1865. 1/4 foot.

Princeton University Libraries

Princeton, NJ
Papers: In the Andre deCoppet collection, 1566-1942. ca. 3,700 items.

Union College
Abigail E. Weeks Memorial Library

Barbourville, KY
Papers: Unknown quantity of material dealing with Lincoln and Union College.

University of Chicago Library

Chicago, IL
Papers: 1608-1918. 2 feet. Lincoln historical collection. Papers relating to Lincoln and his family, including genealogical material, documents, and letters; together with papers of leaders and participants in affairs before, during, and after the Civil War. In part photocopies. Indexed.

University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library Michigan Historical Collections

Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: 1856, 1864. 3 items.

University of Michigan
William L. Clements Library

Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: 1856-1865. 22 letters. Part of Schoff Civil War collection.

Western Reserve Historical Society

Cleveland, OH
Papers: 1841-1870. 237 items. Letters and documents to, from, and about Lincoln.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Angle, Paul M., ed. The Complete Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. Previously published as: Created Equal? [Chicago]: University of Chicago Press, [1958]. Reprint, with a new foreword by David Zarefsky. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

___., ed. The Lincoln Reader. With an introduction by Paul M. Angle. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1947 Reprint, New York, N.Y.: Da Capo Press, [1990].

Arnold, Isaac Newton. The Life of Abraham Lincoln. Chicago: McClurg, 1884. Introduction by James A. Rawley. Reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

Bak, Richard. The Day Lincoln Was Shot. Dallas: Taylor Publishing Company, 1998.

Baker, James Thomas. Abraham Lincoln: The Man and the Myth. Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000.

Bartlett, D. W. (David W.). Life and Public Services of Hon. Abraham Lincoln, With a Portrait on Steel, to Which is Added a Biographical Sketch of Hon. Hannibal Hamlin. New-York: H. Dayton, 1860. Reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, [1969].

Basler, Roy Prentice. The Lincoln Legend: A Study in Changing Conceptions. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1938.

___., comp. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in Translation. Washington: Library of Congress, 1972.

___., ed. Abraham Lincoln, His Speeches and Writings. Edited with critical and analytical notes by Roy P. Basler and preface by Carl Sandburg. Cleveland: World Pub. Co., 1946. Reprint, New York, N.Y.: Da Capo Press, [1990].

___., ed. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. 9 vols. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1953-1955.

Basler, Roy P. and Christian O., eds. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Second supplement, 1848-1865. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Bates, David Homer. Lincoln in the Telegraph Office: Recollections of the United States Military Telegraph Corps During the Civil War. New York: Century Co., 1907. Reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Lincoln, 1995.

___. The Telegraph Goes to War: The Personal Diary of David Homer Bates, Lincoln's Telegraph Operator. Edited by Donald E. Markle. Hamilton, N.Y.: Edmonston, 2003.

Beveridge, Albert J. Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1858. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1928.

Boritt, Gabor, ed. The Lincoln Enigma: The Changing Faces of an American Icon. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

___., ed. Lincoln, The War President: The Gettysburg Lectures. Essays by Robert V. Bruce ... [et al.]. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Braden, Waldo W. Abraham Lincoln, Public Speaker. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.

Brickl, Frank C., comp. Lincoln's Words: Sentiments from the 16th President of the United States. Shippensburg, Pa.: Burd Street Press, 2001.

Browne, Francis Fisher, ed. The Every-Day Life of Abraham Lincoln. New York and St. Louis: N.D. Thompson, 1886. Reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.

Burlingame, Michael. Abraham Lincoln: A Life. Two Volumes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

Carman, Harry James, and Reinhard H. Luthin. Lincoln and the Patronage. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

Carwardine, Richard. Lincoln. Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2003.

Cash, Kenneth P. Abraham Lincoln: Responses. Independence, Ohio: K.P. Cash, 2003.

Charnwood, Godfrey Rathbone Benson, Baron. Abraham Lincoln. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1917. Reprint, introduction by William E. Gienapp. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1997.

Coleman, Charles H. "Was Lincoln Eligible For Election to the United States Senate in 1855?" Lincoln Herald 60 (1958): 91-93.

Cothran, Helen. Abraham Lincoln. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

Cuomo, Marion M. and Harold Holzer, ed. Lincoln on Democracy. With essays by Gabor S. Boritt ... [et al.]; afterword by Frank J. Williams. New York: HarperCollins, 1990. Reprint, New York: Fordham University Press, 2004.

Current, Richard Nelsom. The Lincoln Nobody Knows: A Portrait in Contrast of the Greatest American. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

Davis, Cullom, Charles R. Strozier, Rebecca Monroe Veach and Geoffrey C. Ward. The Public and the Private Lincoln: Contemporary Perspectives. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1979.

DeRose, Chris. Congressman Lincoln: The Making of America's Greatest President. New York: Threshold Editions, 2013.

DiLorenzo, Thomas J. The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2003.

Dirck, Brian R. Lincoln & Davis: Imagining America, 1809-1865. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2001.

Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

___. Lincoln's Herndon. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1948.

___. Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War Era. New York: Knopf, 1956. Reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 2001.

___. "We are Lincoln Men": Abraham Lincoln and His Friends. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.

Epstein, Daniel Mark. Lincoln and Whitman: Parallel Lives in Civil War Washington. New York: Ballantine Books, 2004.

Fenster, Julie M. The Case of Abraham Lincoln: A Story of Adultery, Murder, and the Making of a Great President. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007.

Findley, Paul. A. Lincoln: The Crucible of Congress. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1979.

Garrison, Webb B. The Lincoln No One Knows: The Mysterious Man Who Ran the Civil War. Nashville, Tenn.: Rutledge Hill Press, 1993.

Gienapp, William E. Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Gienapp, William E., ed. This Fiery Trial: The Speeches and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.

Groth, Alexander J. Lincoln: Authoritarian Savior. Davis, Calif.: Groth Associates, 1995. Reprint, Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1996.

Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.

Hamilton, Charles, and Lloyd Ostendorf. Lincoln in Photographs: An Album of Every Known Pose. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

Hamilton, J.G. de Roulhac. Abraham Lincoln: Selections from His Speeches and Writings. Birmingham, Ala.: Palladium Press, [2003].

Hanchett, William. Out of the Wilderness: The Life of Abraham Lincoln. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Hanna, William F. "This Side of the Mountains: Abraham Lincoln's 1848 Visit to Massachusetts." Lincoln Herald 80 (Summer 1978): 56-65.

Harper, Robert S. Lincoln and the Press. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951.

Harris, William C. (William Charles). Lincoln's Last Months. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004.

___. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 1997.

Harrison, Maureen and Steve Gilbert. Abraham Lincoln, Word for Word. San Diego, Calif.: Excellent Books, 1994.

Hay, John. Lincoln and the Civil War in the Diaries and Letters of John Hay. Selected and with an Introduction by Tyler Dennett. Westport: Negro Universities Press, 1939. Reprint, 1972.

___. Inside Lincoln's White House: The Complete Civil War Diary of John Hay. Edited by Michael Burlingame and John R. Turner Ettlinger. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1997.

Heckman, Richard A. "Out-of-State Influences and the Lincoln-Douglas Campaign of 1858." Journal of Illinois State Historical Society 59 (Spring 1966): 30-47.

___. "Political Fortunes of Lincoln and Douglas in 1858-1859." Lincoln Herald 67 (1965): 161-70.

___. "Some Impressions of Lincoln and Douglas During the Campaign of 1858." Lincoln Herald 66 (1964): 135-39.

Herndon, William Henry, and Jesse W. Weik. Herndon's Lincoln: The True Story of a Great Life. 3 vols. Springfield, Ill.: The Herndon's Lincoln Pub. Co., 1888.

Hesseltine, William Best. Lincoln and the War Governors. New York: Knopf, 1948.

Holland, Josiah Gilbert. The Life of Abraham Lincoln. Springfield, Mass.: G. Bill, 1866.

___. Holland's Life of Abraham Lincoln. Introduction by Allen C. Guelzo. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

Holzer, Harold. "The Imagemakers: Portraits of Lincoln in the 1860 Campaign." Chicago History 7 (Winter 1978-1979): 198-207.

Holzer, Harold, ed.. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates: The First Complete, Unexpurgated Text. Introduction by Harold Holzer. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993. Reprint, New York: Fordham University Press, 2004.

Holzer, Harold, ed. and comp. Abraham Lincoln, The Writer: A Treasury of His Greatest Speeches and Letters. Honesdale, Pa.: Boyds Mills Press, 2000.

Howells, William Dean, and John L. Hayes. Lives and Speeches of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin. Columbus, Ohio: Follett, Foster and Co., 1860.

Humes, James C., ed. The Wit & Wisdom of Abraham Lincoln: A Treasury of More Than 650 Quotations and Anecdotes. With a foreword by Lamar Alexander. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1996.

Ingersoll, Robert G. Abraham Lincoln. N.p.: Lane, 1894.

Jaffa, Harry V. A New Birth of Freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the Coming of the Civil War. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

Johannsen, Robert W. "The Lincoln-Douglas Campaign of 1858: Background and Perspective." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 73 (Winter 1980): 242-62.

___. Lincoln, the South, and Slavery: The Political Dimension. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991.

Johnson, Ludwell H. "Lincoln and Equal Rights: The Authenticity of the Wadsworth Letter." Journal of Southern History 32 (1966): 83-87.

Johnson, Michael P. Abraham Lincoln, Slavery, and the Civil War: Selected Writings and Speeches. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2001.

Kaplan, Fred. Lincoln: The Biography of a Writer. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2008.

Kempf, Edward John. Abraham Lincoln's Philosophy of Common Sense: An Analytical Biography of a Great Mind. 3 vols. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1965.

Keneally, Thomas. Abraham Lincoln. New York: Lipper/Viking, 2003.

Ketcham, Henry. The Life of Abraham Lincoln. New York: A. L. Burt, 1901.

Kunhardt, Philip B. and Philip B. Kunhardt III. Lincoln: An Illustrated Biography. Foreword by David Herbert Donald; contributing writer Daniel Terris. New York: Knopf, 1992. Reprint, New York: Gramercy Books, 1999.

Lamon, Ward Hill. The Life of Abraham Lincoln from His Birth to His Inauguration as President. Boston: J. R. Osgood, 1872. Reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.

Landon, Roberta, ed. The Illustrated Gettysburg Address. New York: Gramercy Books, 2000.

Leidner, Gordon, ed. and comp. A Commitment to Honor: A Unique Portrait of Abraham Lincoln in His Own Words. Nashville, Tenn.: Rutledge Hill Press, 2000.

Levy, Aaron. "Abraham Lincoln as a Politician." Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University, 1909.

Lewis, Lloyd. Myths After Lincoln. New York: Blue Ribbon Books, 1929.

Lincoln, Abraham. The Emancipation Proclamation. Bedford, Mass : Applewood Books, 1998.

___. Famous Speeches of Abraham Lincoln. New Rochelle: Peter Pauper Press, [1935]. Reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, [1969].

___. The Gettysburg Address. Illustrated by Michael McCurdy and a foreword by Garry Wills. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995.

___. Gettysburg: An Address. Observations by Austin Jones and engravings by James Horton. Point Pleasant, W.V.: A. Jones, 1994.

___. Great Speeches / Abraham Lincoln. With historical notes by John Grafton. New York: Dover Publications, 1991.

___. Selected Speeches and Writings. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

___. Speeches and Writings, 1832-1858: Speeches, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings, The Lincoln-Douglas Debates. New York, N.Y.: Literary Classics of the United States, Distributed by the Viking Press, 1989.

Long, David E. The Jewel of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln's Re-election and the End of Slavery. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1994. Reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1997.

Ludwig, Emil. Lincoln. Boston: Little, Brown, 1930.

Luthin, Reinhard Henry. The First Lincoln Campaign. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1944.

___. The Real Abraham Lincoln. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1960.

Masters, Edgar Lee. Lincoln the Man. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1931. Reprint, Columbia, S.C.: Foundation for American Education, 1997

McAfee, Ward. Citizen Lincoln . New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2004.

McPherson, James M. Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Mearns, David Chambers, ed. The Lincoln Papers. 2 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1948.

Milton, George Fort. Abraham Lincoln and the Fifth Column. New York: Vanguard Press, 1942.

Mitgang, Herbert, ed. Abraham Lincoln, A Press Portrait. His Life and Times from the Original Newspaper Documents of the Union, the Confederacy, and Europe. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1971. Reprint, New York: Fordham University Press, 2000.

___., ed. Lincoln as They Saw Him. His Life and Times from the Original Newspaper documents of the Union, the Confederacy, and Europe. New York: Rinehart, 1956. Reprint, New York: Octagon Books, 1980.

___., comp. Selected Writings of Abraham Lincoln. With an introduction by Herbert Mitgang. New York: Bantam Books, 1992.

Monaghan, Jay [James]. Diplomat in Carpet Slippers: Abraham Lincoln Deals with Foreign Affairs. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1945.

___., ed. Lincoln Bibliography, 1839-1939. 2 vols. Springfield: Illinois State Historical Library, 1943-1945.

Morris, Jan. Lincoln, A Foreigner's Quest. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Neely, Mark E. Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994.

___. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Nevins, Allan. The Emergence of Lincoln. 2 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1950.

Nicolay, John George, and John Hay. Abraham Lincoln: A History. 10 vols. New York: Century, 1890.

___. Abraham Lincoln, A History, by John G. Nicolay and John Hay. Abridged and Edited by Paul M. Angle. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966.

___. An Oral History of Abraham Lincoln: John G. Nicolay's Interviews and Essays. Edited by Michael Burlingame. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1996.

___. With Lincoln in the White House: Letters, Memoranda, and Other Writings of John G. Nicolay, 1860-1865. Edited by Michael Burlingame. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2000.

___. Abraham Lincoln: The Observations of John G. Nicolay and John Hay. Edited by Michael Burlingame. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2007

Paludan, Phillip S. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln. Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas, 1994.

Pargellis, Stanley. "Lincoln's Political Philosophy." Abraham Lincoln Quarterly 3 (1945): 275-90.

Peterson, Merrill D. Lincoln In American Memory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Pinsker, Matthew. "Senator Abraham Lincoln." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 14:2 (Summer 1993): 1-21.

___. Abraham Lincoln. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2002.

Pitt, H. G. Abraham Lincoln. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1998.

Porter, Laura Smith. "The last, best hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln's Perception of the Mission of America, 1834-1854." Illinois Historical Journal 78 (Autumn 1985): 207-16.

Potter, David Morris. Lincoln and His Party in the Secession. New Haven: Yale University Press; London: H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1942. Reprint, [Introduction by Daniel W. Crofts]. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, 1995.

Pratt, Harry Edward. The Personal Finances of Abraham Lincoln. Springfield, Ill: The Abraham Lincoln Association, 1943.

___., ed. Concerning Mr. Lincoln: In Which Abraham Lincoln is Pictured as He Appeared to Letter Writers of His Time. Springfield, Ill.: The Abraham Lincoln Association, 1944.

Pressly, Thomas J. "Bullets and Ballots: Lincoln and the 'Right of Revolution.'" American Historical Review 57 (1962): 647-62.

Purvis, Thomas L. "The Making of a Myth: Abraham Lincoln's Family Background in the Perspective of Jacksonian Politics." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 75 (Summer 1982): 148-60.

Quarles, Benjamin. Lincoln and the Negro. New York: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Randall, J. G. [James Garfield]. Constitutional Problems under Lincoln. New York: D. Appleton, 1926.

___. Lincoln and the South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1946.

___. Lincoln, the Liberal Statesman. New York: Dodd Mead, 1947.

Randall, J.G., and Richard N. Current. Lincoln the President. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1955. Reprint, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

Rawley, James A. Abraham Lincoln and a Nation Worth Fighting For. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1996. Reprint, with a new introduction by the author. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.

___. "The Nationalism of Abraham Lincoln." Civil War History 9 (1963): 283-98.

___. The President Shall Have Power: Lincoln, His Cabinet, Congress, and the Supreme Court. Beaver Dam, Wis.: Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin, 2002.

Reilly, Tom. "Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858 Forced New Role on the Press." Journalism Quarterly 56 (Winter 1979): 734-43, 752.

Rice, Allen Thorndike, ed. Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln by Distinguished Men of His Time. New York: North American Pub. Co., 1885.

Riches, William T. M. "The Commoners: Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln to 1861." Ph.D. diss., University of Tennessee, 1976.

Riddle, Donald W. Congressman Abraham Lincoln. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957.

Robinson, Luther Emerson. Abraham Lincoln as a Man of Letters. 1923. Reprint, Philadelphia: R. West, 1977.

Roop, Peter, and Connie Roop. Let's Split Logs, Abe Lincoln! New York: Scholastic, 2002.

Roscoe, Theodore. The Web of Conspiracy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1959.

Rothschild, Alonzo. Lincoln, Master of Men: A Study in Character. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1906.

Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln, The Prairie Years and the War Years. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1966.

___. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. 4 vols. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1939.

Schwartz, Barry. Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Segal, Charles M., ed. Conversations with Lincoln. New York: Putnam, 1961. Reprint, with a new preface by the editor and an introduction by David Donald. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2002.

Seitz, Don C. Lincoln the Politician; How the Rail-Splitter and Flatboatman Played the Great American Game. New York: Coward-McCann, 1931.

Shaw, Archer Hayes, ed. The Lincoln Encyclopedia; The Spoken and Written Words of A. Lincoln, Arranged for Ready Reference. New York: Macmillan, 1950. Reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Simon, John Y. and Harold Holzer. Dawn Ruark, associate editor. The Lincoln Forum: Rediscovering Abraham Lincoln. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.

Simpson, Brooks D.,ed. Think Anew, Act Anew: Abraham Lincoln on Slavery, Freedom, and Union. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1998.

Simon, John Y. "Lincoln and Truman Smith." Lincoln Herald 67 (Fall 1965): 124-30.

Simon, Paul. Lincoln's Preparation for Greatness: The Illinois Legislative Years. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965.

Smith, T.V. Abraham Lincoln and the Spiritual Life. Boston: The Beacon Press, 1951.

___. Lincoln: Living Legend. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1940.

Stern, Philip Van Doren, ed. The Life and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. Includes a biographical essay by Philip Van Doren Stern; with an introduction, "Lincoln and his writings," by Allan Nevins. New York: Random House, 1940. Reprint, New York: Modern Library, 1999.

Stewart, Charles J. "The People and the Lincoln-Douglas Campaign of 1858." Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 65 (3 October 1967): 284-93.

Strozier, Charles B. Lincoln's Quest for Union: A Psychological Portrait. Foreword by Geoffrey C. Ward. New York: Basic Books, 1982. Reprint, Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books, 2001.

Tarbell, Ida Minerva. The Life of Abraham Lincoln. 2 vols. New York: Doubleday and McClure, 1900.

Thomas, Benjamin Platt. Abraham Lincoln: A Biography. New York: Knopf, 1952.

___. "Lincoln's humor" and Other Essays. Edited by Michael Burlingame. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

___. Portrait for Posterity: Lincoln and His Biographers. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1947.

Thomas, John L., ed. Abraham Lincoln and the American Political Tradition. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1986.

Van der Linden, Frank. Lincoln: The Road to War. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Pub., 1998.

Van Doren, Carl, ed. The Literary Works of Abraham Lincoln. Introduction, by Carl Van Doren; illustrations by John Steuart Curry. Menasha, Wis.: Printed for the members of the Limited Editions Club by the Collegiate Press, 1942. Reprint, Norwalk, Conn.: Easton Press, 1980.

Waugh, John C. Reelecting Lincoln: The Battle for the 1964 Presidency. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1997.

Weik, Jesse William. The Real Lincoln: A Portrait. Boston; N.Y.: Houghton Mifflin, 1922. Reprint, edited by Michael Burlingame. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, [2002].

White, Ronald C. (Ronald Cedric). Lincoln's American Eloquence. New York: Random House, 2005.

Whitney, Henry Clay. Life on the Circuit with Lincoln: With sketches of Generals Grant, Sherman, and McClellan, Judge Davis, Leonard Swett, and Other Contemporaries. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1892. Reprint, Union, N.J.: Lawbook Exchange, 2001.

Williams, Frank J. A Comparison in leadership: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln and Winston Churchill: The Warrior, Communitarian, and Echo Men. Beaver Dam, Wis.: Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin, 2002.

___. Judging Lincoln. With a foreword by Harold Holzer, and an epilogue by John Y. Simon. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2002.

Williams, Frank J., William D. Pederson, and Vincent J. Marsala, eds. Abraham Lincoln Sources and Style of Leadership. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Williams, T. Harry, ed. Selected Writings and Speeches of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Hendricks House, 1980.

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