JACKSON, Andrew

1767–1845

Biography

JACKSON, Andrew, a Representative and a Senator from Tennessee and 7th President of the United States; born on March 15, 1767; in the Waxhaw Settlement in South Carolina; attended an old-field school; though just a boy, participated in the battle of Hanging Rock during the Revolution, captured by the British and imprisoned; worked for a time in a saddler's shop and afterward taught school; studied law in Salisbury, N.C.; admitted to the bar in 1787; moved to Jonesboro (now Tennessee) in 1788 and commenced practice; appointed solicitor of the western district of North Carolina, comprising what is now the State of Tennessee, in 1788; held the same position in the territorial government of Tennessee after 1791; delegate to the convention to frame a constitution for the new State 1796; upon the admission of Tennessee as a State into the Union was elected to the Fourth and Fifth Congresses and served from December 5, 1796, until his resignation in September 1797; elected as a Democratic Republican in September 1797 to the United States Senate for the term that had commenced March 4, 1797, and served from September 26, 1797, until his resignation in April 1798; judge of the State supreme court of Tennessee 1798-1804; engaged in planting and in mercantile pursuits; served in the Creek War of 1813 as commander of Tennessee forces; his victory in the Creek War brought him a commission as major general in the United States Army in May 1814; led his army to victory over the British in the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; received the thanks of Congress and a gold medal by resolution of February 27, 1815; commanded an expedition which captured Florida in 1817; served as Governor of the new territory in 1821; again elected to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1823, to October 14, 1825, when he resigned; chairman, Committee on Military Affairs (Eighteenth Congress); unsuccessful candidate for President in 1824; elected as a Democrat as President of the United States in 1828; reelected in 1832 and served from March 4, 1829, to March 3, 1837; retired to his country home, the 'Hermitage,' near Nashville, Tenn., where he died June 8, 1845; interment in the garden on his estate.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

Alabama Department of Archives and History

Montgomery, AL
Papers: In Horsehoe Bend National Military Park papers, 1813-[ca. 1820]; Governor's administrative files, 1835-1837; James Dellet papers, 1775-ca. 1870; John Coffee papers, 1797-1887; John McKee letters, 1818-1828; and 1 letter (1814) from George Phillips.

Boston Public Library

Boston, MA
Papers: 30 items. Finding aid.

Brooklyn Historical Society

Brooklyn, NY
Papers: 1815-1845. 10 items. Personal correspondence, political and business papers. Includes announcement of his visit to Brooklyn and 5 letters regarding funeral arrangements. Finding aid.

Chicago Historical Society

Chicago, IL
Papers: 1786-1853. Ca. 1,100 items. Correspondence, business and financial records, commissions, patents, military papers, and papers relating to his business, real estate, and political careers. Finding aid.

Cincinnati Historical Society

Cincinnati, OH
Papers: Correspondence in Abraham R. Johnston papers, 1834-1849.

Duke University
Special Collections Library

Durham, NC
Papers: 1796-1907. 58 items. Personal, political, and military correspondence, newspaper clippings, and portraits. Finding aid.

Filson Club Historical Society

Louisville, KY
Papers: Miscellaneous letters, documents, and references in various collections including Foote family papers, 1752-1987; and Jones family papers, 1816-1917.

Henry E. Huntington Library

San Marino, CA
Papers: 30 letters (1803-1839) in various collections. Includes 14 to his wife.

Historic New Orleans Collection

New Orleans, LA
Papers: Correspondence in Butler family papers, 1778-1975; and miscellaneous items in various collections.

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: In Simon Gratz collection, 1800-1879; United States Bank papers, 1797-1850; James Moore Swank papers, 1785-1898 (bulk 1785, 1871-1898); Jonathan Roberts papers, 1780-1930, and memoirs, 1799-1830; Joel Roberts Poinsett papers, 1785-1851; Pemberton family papers, 1800-1948 (bulk 1800-1910); Robert Patterson diaries, 1835; Daniel Parker papers, 1800-1846; Josiah Stoddard Johnston papers, 1821-1839; Peter Adolph Grotjan memoirs, 1844-1846; Gilpin family papers, 1727-1872; James Buchanan papers, 1775-1868; Clifford family papers, 1722-1832; and in Samuel Welsh autograph collection, 1788-1864.

Knox College
Seymour Library

Galesburg, IL
Papers: 1 endorsement on a letter from Generals Macomb and Wool (June 20, 1836) in Sang autograph collection, 1751-1954; and 1 letter (December 10, 1823) in Bookfellow Foundation autograph collection, 1793-1945.

Ladies' Hermitage Association

Hermitage, TN
Papers: 1788-1961. Ca. 515 items and 1 volume. In part transcripts and photocopies. Personal and political correspondence and papers, financial and estate records, legal and military papers, portraits, and memorabilia. Finding aid. Photocopies and finding aid in Tennessee State Library and Archives.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Papers: 1775-1860 (bulk 1785-1845). 192 containers. Correspondence, military papers, messages, speeches and other papers reflecting most phases of his career. Available on 78 microfilm reels. Finding aid. Also 16 containers, 1800-1845, chiefly transcripts and printed material excluded from microfilm edition.
Additional Papers: 39 microfilm reels of originals, 1770-1845, in 248 repositories (including the Library of Congress and the National Archives) which were not included in the Library of Congress and National Archives microfilm series (published guide on reel 39); correspondence (1828-1845) in Martin Van Buren papers, 1787-1868, published handbook (1918) and published calendar, available on 34 microfilm reels; in Commissioners of the City of Washington records, 1791-1869 (bulk 1791-1808); War Department records, 1790-1840; printed message in Francis Markoe scrapbook of Peter Force papers, 1829-1833; correspondence in Millard Fillmore papers; and letters in David Rogerson Williams papers, 1793-1816.

Massachusetts Historical Society

Boston, MA
Papers: 86 items and references (1793-1848) in various collections. Includes references in political correspondence and signatures on official documents.

Memphis State University Library
Mississippi Valley Collection

Memphis, TN
Papers: 1804-1844. 11 items. In part photocopies of originals privately owned. Letters written by Jackson to Coffee family relating to business and family matters. Finding aid.

Missouri Historical Society

St. Louis, MO
Papers: 1813-1839. 40 items.

New Jersey Historical Society

Newark, NJ
Papers: A resolution concerning the Adams-Jackson presidential election in Philadelphia Baptist Association records, 1755-1828; in Canfield-Dickerson family papers, 1738-1926; and Winfield Scott papers, 1809-1866.

New-York Historical Society

New York, NY
Papers: 21 letters and items in the Boardman family papers, 1778-1924 and Campbell-Mumford papers, 1719-1891; and correspondence in Donald F. Clark collection, 1642-1920.

New York Public Library

New York, NY
Papers: Ca. 279 items (ca. 1806-1864) in various collections including James A. Hamilton papers, [ca. 1740-1867]. In part photocopies of originals in Pierpont Morgan Library. Finding aid.

North Carolina Division of Archives and History

Raleigh, NC
Papers: 1788-1836. 45 items. In part photocopies. Correspondence, deeds, maps, articles, and "The Andrew Jackson birthplace: a report prepared for the Historic Sites Division of the North Carolina Department of Archives and History," compiled by Max Harris. Finding aid.

Pierpont Morgan Library

New York, NY
Papers: 1813-1845. 76 items.

Princeton University
Seeley G. Mudd Library

Princeton, NJ
Papers: Ca. 350 items (1796-1844) in the Andre deCoppet collection, 1566-1942.

Rhode Island Historical Society

Providence, RI
Papers: Correspondence in De Wolf family papers, 1751-1864.

Rosenbach Museum and Library

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: 1804-1835. 15 letters. Finding aid.

Smithsonian Institution
Archives of American Art

Washington, DC
Papers: Vintage Brady Studio print in Matthew B. Brady photographs, [ca. 1860-1880].

Temple University Libraries
Rare Book and Manuscript Collections

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: Correspondence in Alexander James and George Mifflin Dallas papers, 1794-1865.

Tennessee Historical Society

Nashville, TN
Papers: Miscellaneous papers in several collections.

Tennessee State Library and Archives

Nashville, TN
Papers: 1788-1942. 6 linear feet; ca. 1,500 items. In part photocopies. Correspondence, legal documents, military records, articles, bills, receipts, clippings, photographs, memorabilia, articles about Jackson and research materials. Finding aid. Also microfilm of material at the Library of Congress and The Hermitage.
Additional Papers: Orders and correspondence (1813-1814) in War of 1812 records, 1812-1937; correspondence, endorsements, accounts, books, pamphlets, cartoons, and pictures relating to Jackson in Emil Edward Hurja collection, 1788-1953. Finding aid.

Texas State Library
Archives Division

Austin, TX
Papers: 1825-1844. 1 folder. Letters to Sam Houston. Photocopies of originals privately owned.

Thomas Gilcrease Institute of
American History and Art

Tulsa, OK
Papers: 1813-1847. 15 items. Personal and business correspondence and papers and marble sculpture of Jackson by Clark Mills. Restricted. Items very fragile; not available for loan and cannot be photocopied. Appointment necessary.

University of Michigan
William L. Clements Library

Ann Arbor, MI
Papers: Ca. 50 items (1812-1844; bulk ca. War of 1812, and 1830-1836) in Cass, Brown, and other collections. Finding aid.

University of North Carolina
Southern Historical Collection

Chapel Hill, NC
Papers: Correspondence in Richard Keith Call papers, 1804-1905; and papers of Jackson while U.S. commissioner to settle Indian boundaries in Jesse Franklin Indian Treaty papers, 1816 (1 volume).

University of Virginia
Alderman Library

Charlottesville, VA
Papers: Correspondence in various collections. Finding aid.

Vanderbilt University Library
Special Collections

Nashville, TN
Papers: Ca. 200 items in the Stanley F. Horn collection, 1780-1905. 1.75 cubic feet. Correspondence and papers relating to the Burr conspiracy, Creek Indian War, Indian problems, military supplies, Adams and Clay junta, Texas question, the tariff, nullification proclamation, and presidential elections. Includes correspondence with Samuel Swarthout, William H. Crawford, Joseph Anderson, Hugh Lawson White, and William Blount. Photocopies of the collection are in Tennessee State Library and Archives. Finding aid.

Virginia Historical Society

Richmond, VA
Papers: Ca. 10 letters and additional references. Finding aid.

Virginia State Library and Archives

Richmond, VA
Papers: In Johnnston family papers, 1779-1891; William H. Brodnax papers, 1810-1862; Tazewell family papers, 1772-1866; and Joseph C. Cabell letter, February 1829.

Western Reserve Historical Society

Cleveland, OH
Papers: Ca. 1793-1867. 30 items and 1 volume. Correspondence and papers relating to his land holdings.

Xavier University
McDonald Memorial Library

Cincinnati, OH
Papers: 27 items (1830-1844) in the Moses Dawson correspondence, 1811-1845. Finding aid. Available on microfilm.

Yale University Libraries
Manuscripts and Archives

New Haven, CT
Papers: 78 microfilm reels of originals (1775-1860) in Library of Congress. Correspondence, letterbooks, record books, military papers, messages, speeches, and related papers covering most phases of his career. Finding aid.
Papers: 39 microfilm reels of originals (1770-1845) in 600 public and private repositories. Correspondence, speeches, governmental and military reports, articles, account books, and other documents located since the 1967 publication of the Andrew Jackson Papers in the Library of Congress.
Papers: 1 microfilm reel of correspondence and manuscripts (1804-1845) found in various collections at Yale University.

The Papers of Andrew Jackson
Tennessee Presidents Center Hoskins Library

Knoxville, TN
Research Libraries Information Network In addition to the institutions listed above, items are also cataloged in collections at: American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA; American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA; Arkansas Territorial Restoration, Little Rock, AR; Brigham Young University, Special Collections, Provo, UT; Clermont State Historic Site, Germantown, NY; Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New York, NY; Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY; Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH; Historic New Orleans Collection, New Orleans, LA; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Maine Historical Society Library, Portland, ME; Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, MD; Museum of the American Indian Library, Bronx, NY; Museum of the City of New York, New York, NY; New York City Municipal Archives, New York, NY; New York State Library, Albany, NY; Northwestern University Library, Evanston, IL; Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA; Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA; Radcliffe College, Schlesinger Library, Cambridge, MA; Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, CA; Syracuse University, George Arents Research Library, Syracuse, NY; State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City, IA; and University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library, Ann Arbor, MI.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Abernethy, Thomas P. "Andrew Jackson and the Rise of Southwestern Democracy." American Historical Review 33 (October 1927): 64-77.

___. From Frontier to Plantation in Tennessee: A Study in Frontier Democracy. 1932. Reprint. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979.

Bassett, John Spencer. The Life of Andrew Jackson. 1911. Reprint of 1931 ed. (2 vols. in 1). Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1967.

Bassett, John Spencer, and Daniel M. Matteson, eds. Correspondence of Andrew Jackson. 7 vols. 1926-1935. Reprint (7 vols. in 6). New York: Kraus Reprint, 1969.

Brown, William Garrott. Andrew Jackson. New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1900.

Chidsey, Donald Barr. Andrew Jackson, Hero. Nashville: T. Nelson, 1976.

Coit, Margaret L. Andrew Jackson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin & Co., 1965.

Craven, Avery O., ed. "Letters of Andrew Jackson." Huntington Library Bulletin 3 (February 1933): 109-34.

Curtis, James C. Andrew Jackson and the Search for Vindication. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1976.

Davis, Burke. Old Hickory: A Life of Andrew Jackson. New York: Dial Press, 1977.

Eaton, John Henry, and John Reid. The Life of Andrew Jackson. 1817. Reprint, edited by Frank L. Owsley, Jr. University, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1974.

Ely, James W., Jr. "Andrew Jackson as Tennessee State Court Judge, 1798-1804." Tennessee Historical Quarterly 40 (Summer 1981): 144-57.

___. "The Legal Practice of Andrew Jackson." Tennessee Historical Quarterly 38 (Winter 1979): 421-35.

Ely, James W., Jr., and Theodore Brown, Jr., eds. Legal Papers of Andrew Jackson. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1987.

Feller, Daniel. "Andrew Jackson versus the Senate." In Paul Finkelman and Donald R. Kennon, eds., Congress and the Emergence of Sectionalism: From the Missouri Compromise to the Age of Jackson. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2008; 258-281.

Goodpasture, Albert Virgil. Andrew Jackson, Tennessee and the Union. Nashville: Brandon Printing Co., 1895.

Heiskell, Samuel Gordon. Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History. Nashville: Ambrose Printing Co., 1918.

James, Marquis. The Life of Andrew Jackson, Complete in One Volume. 1933-1937. New ed. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1938. Originally published in 2 vols.: Andrew Jackson, the Border Captain (1933), and Andrew Jackson, Portrait of a President (1937).

Johnson, Gerald White. Andrew Jackson, an Epic in Homespun. New York: Minton, Balch & Co., 1927.

Kendall, Amos. Life of Andrew Jackson, Private, Military, and Civil. 6 vols. New York: n.p., 1843-1844.

Lindsey, David. Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun. Woodbury, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 1973.

McKellar, Kenneth. "Andrew Jackson," in Tennessee Senators as seen by one of their Successors. Kingsport, Tenn.: Southern Publishers, Inc., 1942, 74-110.

Meacham, Jon. American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House. New York: Random House, 2008.

Moser, Harold D., Sharon Macpherson, John Reinbold, and Daniel Feller, eds., The Papers of Andrew Jackson 1770-1845: A Microfilm Supplement. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1987. 39 reels and guide.

Parton, James. Life of Andrew Jackson. 3 vols. New York: Mason Brothers, 1859-1861. Also single volume, condensed version (New York: Mason Brothers, 1863).

Ratner, Lorman A. "Andrew Jackson: In Search of Honor, in Defense of Reputation." In Andrew Jackson and His Tennessee Lieutenants: A Study in Political Culture, 19-34. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1966.

___. Andrew Jackson. 3 vols. New York: Harper & Row, 1977-1984. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821 (1977); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832 (1981); and Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845 (1984).

___. The Life of Andrew Jackson. 1988. Reprint. New York: Penguin Books, 1990. A single volume, condensed version of Remini's three-volume biography.

Remini, Robert V., and Robert O. Rupp, comps. Andrew Jackson: A Bibliography. Westport, CT: Meckler, 1991.

Rosen, Deborah A. "Wartime Prisoners and the Rule of Law: Andrew Jackson's Military Tribunals During the First Seminole War." Journal of the Early Republic 28 (Winter 2008): 559-595.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Age of Jackson. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1945.

Sellers, Charles Grier, comp. Andrew Jackson: A Profile. New York: Hill & Wang, 1971.

Shaw, Ronald E., ed. Andrew Jackson, 1767-1845: Chronology, Documents, Bibliographical Aids. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1969.

Smith, Sam B., Harriet Chappell Owsley, Harold D. Moser, Sharon Macpherson, David R. Hoth, John H. Reinbold, George H. Hoemann et al., eds. The Papers of Andrew Jackson. 5 vols. to date. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1980-.

Somit, Albert. "Andrew Jackson: Legend and Reality." Tennessee Historical Quarterly 7 (December 1948): 291-313.

___. "Andrew Jackson as Political Theorist." Tennessee Historical Quarterly 8 (June 1949): 99-126.

Sumner, William Graham. Andrew Jackson. 1882. Reprint of 1899 ed., with new introduction by Robert V. Remini. New York: Chelsea House, 1980.

Syrett, Harold C. Andrew Jackson: His Contribution to the American Tradition. 1953. Reprint. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971.

Walker, Arda S. "Andrew Jackson: Frontier Democrat." East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications 18 (1946): 59-86.

___. "The Educational Training and Views of Andrew Jackson." East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications 16 (1944): 22-29.

___. "The Religious Views of Andrew Jackson." East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications 17 (1945): 61-70.

Watson, Thomas Edward. The Life and Times of Andrew Jackson. Thomson, GA: Press of the Jeffersonian Publishing Co., 1912.

Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson. New York: Times Books, 2005.

Wise, W. Harvey, Jr., and John W. Cronin, comps. A Bibliography of Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. 1935. Reprint. New York: B. Franklin, 1970.

Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. "Andrew Jackson's Honor." Journal of the Early Republic 17 (SPring 1997): 1-36.

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