HAYES, Rutherford Birchard

HAYES, Rutherford Birchard
Image courtesy of Library of Congress
1822–1893

Biography

HAYES, Rutherford Birchard, a Representative from Ohio and 19th President of the United States; born in Delaware, Delaware County, Ohio, October 4, 1822; attended the common schools, the Methodist Academy in Norwalk, Ohio, and the Webb Preparatory School in Middletown, Conn.; graduated from Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, in August 1842 and from the Harvard Law School in January 1845; admitted to the bar on May 10, 1845, and commenced practice in Lower Sandusky (now Fremont); moved to Cincinnati in 1849 and resumed the practice of law; city solicitor 1857-1859; commissioned major of the Twenty-third Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, June 27, 1861; lieutenant colonel October 24, 1861; colonel October 24, 1862; brigadier general of Volunteers October 9, 1864; brevetted major general of Volunteers March 3, 1865; elected as a Republican to the Thirty-ninth and Fortieth Congresses and served from March 4, 1865, to July 20, 1867, when he resigned, having been nominated for Governor of Ohio; Governor 1868-1872; unsuccessful candidate for election to the Forty-third Congress; again elected Governor and served from January 1876 to March 2, 1877, when he resigned, having been elected President of the United States; was inaugurated March 5, 1877, and served until March 3, 1881; died in Fremont, Sandusky County, Ohio, January 17, 1893; interment in Oakwood Cemetery; following the gift of his home to the State of Ohio for the Spiegel Grove State Park, was reinterred there in 1915.

View Record in the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

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External Research Collections

Boston Public Library

Boston, MA
Papers: 1 letter.

Brigham Young University
L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library

Provo, UT
Papers: 1870, 1 letter. A letter from Hayes to A.T. Goodman written on January 1, 1870.
Papers: 1877, 1 letter. A letter from Benjamin Harrison to Hayes written on March 6, 1877.

Brooklyn Historical Society

Brooklyn, NY
Papers: 1878, 1 item. A naval appointment dated May 17, 1878. Finding aid in repository.

Cincinnati Historical Society

Cincinnati, OH

Duke University Library

Durham, NC
Papers: In U.S. Presidents' papers, 1753-1935, 202 items. Card index in library.

Harvard University
Law School Library

Cambridge, MA
Papers: 1878, 1 item. A letter from Hayes to William S. Crump written on November 20, 1878. In the letter, Hayes asks Crump to send him some books and other materials from Washington.

Indiana Historical Society

Indianapolis, IN
Papers: 31 scattered letters.

Library of Congress
Manuscript Division

Washington, DC
Papers: 1856-1892, 2 containers. Includes an index.
Papers: 1829-1896, 304 reels of microfilm. Originals in Rutherford B. Hayes Library and other repositories.

Minnesota Historical Society

St. Paul, MN
Papers: 1829-1895, 3 reels of microfilm. Originals in Rutherford B. Hayes Library.

The Morgan Library and Museum
Literary and Historical Manuscripts

New York, NY
Papers: 1877, 1 item. A letter from William Gannaway Brownlow to Hayes written on April 24, 1877. In the letter, Brownlow recommends the appointment of John Baxter of Knoxville to the U.S. Supreme Court.
Papers: 1869, 1 item. A letter from Hayes to an unidentified recipient written on November 4, 1869. In the letter, Hayes recommends Hon. Richard M. Corwine of Cincinnati.
Papers: 1879, 1 item. A letter from Hayes to an unidentified recipient written on April 9, 1879. In the letter, Hayes appoints George H. Butler to a major in the Marine Corps.
Papers: 1887, 1 item. A letter from Hayes to Edgar F. Gladoni written on April 23, 1887.
Papers: 1876, 1 item. A letter from Hayes to an unidentified recipient written on June 12, 1876.

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society Library

New York, NY
Papers: Genealogical chart, prepared ca. 1860. Finding aid in repository.

New-York Historical Society

New York, NY
Papers: 1872-1880, 15 letters.
Papers: 1879, 1 page. A letter from John Sherman to President Rutherford B. Hayes written on December 14, 1879. In the letter, Sherman writes to Hayes to cancel their riding engagement.

Ohio Historical Society

Columbus, OH
Papers: 1868-1880, 1 roll of microfilm. Selected Hayes correspondence collected by William H. Smith.

The Ohio State University Libraries

Columbus, OH
Papers: 1887-1892, 63 items. Letters relating to Ohio State University. Restricted.

Rosenbach Museum and Library

Philadelphia, PA
Papers: ca. 1873, 1 item. A letter from Hayes to W.O. Davie & Co. written around December 26, 1873. In the letter, Hayes places bids for four books from an auction catalog.

Rutherford B. Hayes Library

Fremont, OH
Papers: 1835-1893, 160 feet. Papers and correspondence concerning his family and personal affairs, military service, business and law practice, political career, and other activities. Unpublished index in library.
Papers: In the Grant-Dickinson-Butman Papers,1833-1875, 10 boxes. Correspondence, legal documents, land records, photographs and photograph album, ephemera, and other materials of the allied families of Grant, Dickinson, and Butman. Of particular interest is the correspondence to and from the Hayes family as well as the Beaugrand family, chiefly of a personal nature, with reference to travel, health issues, births, deaths, and marriages within the families. Collection also contains diary and photograph album of Sarah Jane Grant; several books with newspaper clippings pertaining to Rutherford B. Hayes and Civil War era political issues; index of correspondence of Rutherford B. Hayes, Lucy Webb Hayes, Fanny Hayes, Sardis Birchard, Webb C. Hayes, and Birchard Hayes (referring to materials originally in this collection but transferred to their corresponding collections housed separately in the repository); journal entitled "The Youth's Companion" (1864, an oversize item); and letters (1832-1840s) from Rodolphus Dickinson, from Lower Sandusky (Fremont) and later Columbus, Ohio, chiefly written to Statira Grant and Alexander J. Dickinson as well as a legal agreement and biography of Rodolphus Dickinson. Correspondents include Birchard A. Hayes, Mary Birchard, Fannie Cooke, Horace K. King, Emma White, and members of the Ball family.
Papers: In Charles Richard Williams book manuscripts, 1914-1926, ca. 5 feet. Manuscripts and page and galley proofs of Williams' two books on Hayes.

University of California, Berkeley
The Bancroft Library

Berkeley, CA
Papers: 1877, 1 page. A letter from Hayes to an unidentified recipient written on October 30, 1877. In the letter, Hayes requests that C.A. Tweed be reappointed district judge in Arizona.
Papers: 1880, 1 page. A land grant awarded by Hayes to George Wood dated April 30, 1880. The land grant is for 160 acres of land in California.

University of Iowa Libraries
Special Collections and University Archives

Iowa City, IA
Papers: 1881, 1 item. A letter from Hayes to Major Morgan written on August 2, 1881. In the letter, Hayes writes concerning his request for an annual report and his anxiety over President Garfield's condition.
Papers: 1866, 1 item. A letter from Hayes to Thomas C. Durant written on October 3, 1866. In the letter, Hayes writes concerning his regret at not being able to participate in the celebration of the completion of the Union Pacific Railroad.

University of Texas at Austin
Center for American History

Austin, TX
Papers: Correspondence in the Guy Morrison Bryan papers, 1838-1901, 3 feet. Finding aid in repository.

Wisconsin Historical Society

Madison, WI
Papers: In the Hayes and Wheeler Club (Dodge County, Wis.) Papers, 1876, 1 folder.
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Bibliography / Further Reading

Barnard, Harry. Rutherford B. Hayes and His America. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1954. Reprint, New York: Russell & Russell

Bode, Carl. "The Pen before the Sword." Civil War History 7 (March 1961): 63-70.

Burgess, John William. The Administration of President Hayes. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916.

Chamberlain, Daniel Henry. President Hayes's Southern Policy. New York: Press of J. Polhemus, 1877.

Conwell, Russell Herman. Life and Public Services of Gov. Rutherford B. Hayes. Boston: B.B. Russell, 1876.

Cotner, Robert C., and Watt P. Marchman. "Correspondence of Guy M. Bryan and Rutherford B. Hayes: Additional Letters." Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 63 (October 1954): 349-77.

Davison, Kenneth E. The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, [1972].

Eckenrode, Hamilton J., and Pocahontas W. Wight. Rutherford B. Hayes, Statesman of Reunion. New York: Dodd Mead & Co., 1930. Reprint, Norwalk, Conn.: Easton Press, 1988.

Gladden, Washington. The Great Commoner of Ohio. [Columbus, Ohio: Press of Nitschke Brothers, 1893?]

Gruener, Claude Michael. "Rutherford B. Hayes's Horseback Ride Through Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 68 (January 1965): 352-60.

Hayes, Rutherford B. Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes. 5 vols. Edited by Charles Richard Williams. Columbus: The Ohio State Archeological & Historical Society, 1922-26.

------. Hayes: The Diary of a President, 1875-1881. Edited by T. Harry Williams. New York: D. McKay, 1964.

------. Rutherford B. Hayes, 1822-1893; Chronology, Documents, Bibliographical Aids. Edited by Arthur Bishop. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1969.

------. Speech of Gen'l R.B. Hayes at Lebanon, Ohio, August 1867: Union and Liberty. Columbus, Ohio: Union State Executive Committee, 1867.

------. Teach the Freeman; The Correspondence of Rutherford B. Hayes and the Slater Fund for Negro Education, 1881-1887. Edited by Louis D. Rubin. [Baton Rouge]: Louisiana State University Press, [1959].

Hoogenboom, Ari Arthur. The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1988.

------. Rutherford B. Hayes: Warrior and President. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

Howard, J. Q. (James Quay). The life, public services and select speeches of Rutherford B. Hayes. Cincinnati: R. Clarke & Co., 1876.

Howells, William Dean. Sketch of the Life and Character of Rutherford B. Hayes: Also a Biographical Sketch of William A. Wheeler, With Portraits of Both Candidates. New York: Hurd and Houghton; Boston, H. O. Houghton and Company, 1876. Reprint, Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions, 1978.

Johnston, William. Speech of Judge Johnston, on the Life and Character of Rutherford B. Hayes, delivered at Avondale, Ohio, July 21, 1876. Cincinnati: R. Clarke and Company, 1876.

Morris, Roy, Jr. Fraud of the Century: Rutherford B. Hayes, Samuel Tilden, and the Stolen Election of 1876. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.

Parker, Wyman W., ed. "President Hayes's Graduation Speeches." Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 63 (April 1954): 135-46.

Peskin, Allan. "Garfield and Hayes, Political Leaders of the Gilded Age." Ohio Historical Quarterly 77 (1968): 111-24.

Ranson, Frederick Duane. "The Great Unknown: Governor Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio." Ph.D. diss., West Virginia University, 1978.

Rehnquist, William H. Centennial Crisis: The Disputed Election of 1876. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: Distributed by Random House, 2004.

Shores, Venila Lovina. The Hayes-Conkling Controversy, 1877-1879. Northampton, Mass.: Department of History of Smith College, 1919.

Stoddard, William Osborn. Rutherford Birchard Hayes, James Abram Garfield and Chester Alan Arthur. New York: F.A. Stokes & Brother, 1889.

Trefousse, Hans Louis. Rutherford B. Hayes. New York: Times Books, 2002.

Williams, Charles Richard. The Life of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Nineteenth President of the United States. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914. Reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1971

Williams, T. Harry. Hayes of the Twenty-Third: The Civil War Volunteer Officer. New York: Knopf, 1965. Reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, [1994].

------, ed. Hayes: The Diary of a President 1875-1881, Covering the Disputed Election, the End of Reconstruction, and the Beginning of Civil Service. New York: D. McKay Co., [1964].

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