“The President, Vice President and all Civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.”
— U.S. Constitution, Article II, section 4
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List of Individuals Impeached by the House of Representatives
The Constitution gives the House of Representatives “the sole Power of Impeachment” (Article I, Section 2) of federal officers and gives the Senate “the sole Power to try all Impeachments” (Article I, Section 3). In the constitutional procedure of impeachment and removal, the House serves in the role of a grand jury bringing charges against an officer suspected of “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors” (Article II, Section 4).
Since the House initiates this procedure, it also appoints impeachment managers to conduct the case against the officer in the Senate proceeding. From the early 20th century forward, the preferred method of selecting managers has been by a House Resolution naming the number and the persons of the committee of managers. In some instances, the House has, by resolution, fixed the number of managers and authorized the Speaker to appoint them. Managers also have been elected by ballot of the full House with a majority vote for each candidate.1
Contemporary practice has given the Judiciary Committee jurisdiction over possible impeachments. Recent impeachments have included articles of impeachment in the resolution sent to the Senate, and impeachment managers have tended to be from the Committee.
|Individual||Position||House Action/Charges||House Managers||Senate Trial||Result|
|William Blount||U.S. Senator from Tennessee||Impeached July 7, 1797, on charges of conspiring to assist in Great Britain’s attempt to seize Spanish-controlled territories in modern-day Florida and Louisiana||James A. Bayard, Sr.; Samuel W. Dana; John Dennis; Thomas Evans; William Gordon; Robert G. Harper; Hezekiah L. Hosmer; James H. Imlay; Thomas Pinckney; Samuel Sewall; Samuel Sitgreaves; John Wilkes Kittera||December 17, 1798–January 14, 1799||Charges dismissed for want of jurisdiction; Blount had been expelled from the U.S. Senate before his trial.|
|John Pickering||Judge, U.S. district court, District of New Hampshire||Impeached March 2, 1803, on charges of intoxication on the bench and unlawful handling of property claims||William Blackledge; John Boyle; George W. Campbell; Joseph Clay; Peter Early; William Eustis; Samuel L. Mitchill; Thomas Newton, Jr.; Joseph H. Nicholson; John Randolph; Caesar A. Rodney||March 3, 1803–March 12, 1804||Found guilty; removed from office|
|Samuel Chase||Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court||Impeached March 12, 1804, on charges of arbitrary and oppressive conduct of trials||John Boyle; George W. Campbell; Peter Early; Roger Nelson, replaced by Christopher Clark; Joseph H. Nicholson; John Randolph; Caesar A. Rodney||December 7, 1804–March 1, 1805||Acquitted|
|James H. Peck||Judge, U.S. district court, Western district of Tennessee||Impeached April 24, 1830, on charges of abuse of the contempt power||George McDuffie; Ambrose Spencer; Henry R. Storrs; Charles A. Wickliffe; James Buchanan||April 26, 1830–January 31, 1831||Acquitted|
|West H. Humphreys||Judge, U.S. district court, Western district of Tennessee||Impeached May 6, 1862, on charges of refusing to hold court and waging war against the U.S. Government||John A. Bingham; George W. Dunlap; John Hickman; George H. Pendleton; Charles R. Train||June 9, 1862–June 26, 1862||Found guilty; removed from office and disqualified from future office|
|Andrew Johnson||President of the United States||Impeached February 24, 1868, on charges of violating the Tenure of Office Act by removing Secretary of War Edwin Stanton from office||John A. Bingham; George S. Boutwell; Benjamin F. Butler; John A Logan; Thaddeus Stevens; Thomas Williams; James F. Wilson||February 25–May 26, 1868||Acquitted|
|Mark H. Delahay||Judge, U.S. district court, Kansas||Impeached February 28, 1873, on charges of intoxication on the bench||No managers appointed||No trial held||Resigned prior to trial|
|William W. Belknap||U.S. Secretary of War||Impeached March 2, 1876, on charges of criminal disregard for his office and accepting payments in exchange for making official appointments||George F. Hoar; George A. Jenks; James P. Knott; Elbridge G. Lapham; Scott Lord; William P. Lynde; John A. McMahon||March 3–August 1, 1876||Acquitted|
|Charles Swayne||Judge, U.S. district court, Northern district of Florida||Impeached December 13, 1904, on charges of abuse of contempt power and other misuses of office||David A. De Armond; Henry De Lamar Clayton; Marlin E. Olmsted; Henry W. Palmer; James B. Perkins; Samuel L. Powers; David H. Smith||December 14, 1904–February 27, 1905||Acquitted|
|Robert W. Archbald||Associate judge, U.S. Commerce Court||Impeached July 11, 1912, on charges of improper business relationship with litigants||Henry De Lamar Clayton; John W. Davis; John C. Floyd; Leonard P. Howland; George W. Norris; John A. Sterling; Edwin Y. Webb||July 13, 1912–January 13, 1913||Found guilty; removed from office and disqualified from future office|
|George W. English||Judge, U.S. district court, Eastern district of Illinois||Impeached April 1, 1926, on charges of abuse of power||William D. Boies; Frederick H. Dominick; Ira G. Hersey; Earl C. Michener; Andrew J. Montague; Charles E. Moore; George R. Stobbs; John N. Tillman; Hatton Sumners||April 23–December 13, 1926||Resigned November 4, 1926; proceedings dismissed December 13, 1926|
|Harold Louderback||Judge, U.S. district court, Northern district of California||Impeached February 24, 1933, on charges of favoritism in the appointment of bankruptcy receivers||Hatton Sumners; Gordon W. Browning; Randolph Perkins; Ulysses S. Guyer;Lawrence Lewis; James E. Major2||May 15–24, 1933||Acquitted|
|Halsted L. Ritter||Judge, U.S. district court, Southern district of Florida||Impeached March 2, 1936, on charges of favoritism in the appointment of bankruptcy receivers and practicing law as a sitting judge||Samuel F. Hobbs; Randolph Perkins; Hatton Sumners||March 10–April 17, 1936||Found guilty; removed from office|
|Harry E. Claiborne||Judge, U.S. district court of Nevada||Impeached July 22, 1986, on charges of income tax evasion and of remaining on the bench following criminal conviction||Peter W. Rodino, Jr.; Robert W. Kastenmeier; William J. Hughes; Roman L. Mazzoli; Dan Glickman; Hamilton Fish, Jr.; Henry J. Hyde; Thomas N. Kindness; Michael DeWine||October 7–9, 1986||Found guilty; removed from office|
|Alcee L. Hastings||Judge, U.S. district court, Southern district of Florida||Impeached August 3, 1988, on charges of perjury and conspiring to solicit a bribe||John Conyers, Jr.; John Bryant; Hamilton Fish, Jr.; George Gekas; Jack Brooks; Michael Synar3||October 18–20, 1989||Found guilty; removed from office|
|Walter L. Nixon||Judge, U.S. district court, Southern district of Mississippi||Impeached May 10, 1989, on charges of perjury before a federal grand jury||Jack Brooks; William (Donlon) Edwards; Benjamin L. Cardin; Frank James Sensenbrenner, Jr.; William E. Dannemeyer||November 1–3, 1989||Found guilty; removed from office|
|William J. Clinton||President of the United States||Impeached December 19, 1998, on charges of lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstruction of justice||Bob Barr; Ed Bryant; Steve E. Buyer; Charles T. Canady; Chris Cannon; Steve Chabot; George W. Gekas; Lindsey Graham; Asa Hutchinson; Henry J. Hyde; Ira W. McCollum, Jr.; James E. Rogan; Frank James Sensenbrenner, Jr.||January 7–February 12, 1999||Acquitted|
|Samuel B. Kent||Judge, U.S. district court for the Southern district of Texas||Impeached June 19, 2009, on charges of sexual assault, obstructing and impeding an official proceeding, and making false and misleading statements||Adam Schiff; Zoe Lofgren; Hank Johnson; Robert Goodlatte; Frank James Sensenbrenner, Jr.||June 24–July 22, 2009||Resigned June 30, 2009 before the completion of the trial; H. Res. 661 ended the proceedings|
|G. Thomas Porteous, Jr.||Judge, U.S. district court, Eastern district of Louisiana||Impeached March 11, 2010, on charges of accepting bribes and making false statements under penalty of perjury||Adam Schiff; Zoe Lofgren; Hank Johnson; Robert Goodlatte; Frank James Sensenbrenner, Jr.||December 7–8, 2010||Found guilty; removed from office and disqualified from holding future office|
1See Cannon's Precedents, Volume 4 §467.
2The original impeachment manager resolution, H.Res. 402 (72nd Cong., 2nd sess.), was followed by H.Res. 70 (73rd Cong., 1st sess.) which added Randolph Perkins and Ulysses S. Guyer as managers to succeed Fiorello LaGuardia and Charles I. Sparks, who had left the House at the end of the 72nd Congress (1931–1933). With H.Res. 93 (73rd Cong., 1st sess.), Lawrence Lewis and James E. Major were added as managers and Malcom Tarver resigned as a manager. These changes all occurred before the commencement of the Senate trial.
3The original impeachment resolution, H.Res. 511 (100th Cong., 2nd sess.), was followed by H.Res. 12 (101st Cong., 1st sess.) which added Jack Brooks to succeed Peter W. Rodino, Jr. With H.Res. 69 (101st Cong, 1st sess.), Michael Synar replaced William (Don) Edwards. These changes all occurred before the commencement of the Senate trial.