“Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.”
—Article 1, section 5, clause 2
Learn more about the House's power to discipline and punish its Members.More >
List of Individuals Expelled, Censured, or Reprimanded in the U.S. House of Representatives
The Constitution grants the House broad power to discipline its Members for acts that range from criminal misconduct to violations of internal House Rules. Over the decades, several forms of discipline have evolved in the House. The most severe type of punishment by the House is expulsion, which is followed by censure, and finally reprimand.
- Members Who Have Been Expelled From the House of Representatives
- Members Who Have Been Censured By the House of Representatives
- Members Who Have Been Reprimanded By the House of Representatives
Members Who Have Been Expelled From the House of Representatives
The sternest form of punishment that the House has imposed on its Members is expulsion. The Constitution specifically empowers the House to expel a sitting Member who engages in “disorderly Behaviour,” requiring a two-thirds vote of those present and voting. Learn more about the Constitutional origins of expulsion.
|John B. Clark||Disloyalty to the Union; fighting for the Confederacy||July 13, 1861||N/A||94-45|
|John W. Reed||Disloyalty to the Union; fighting for the Confederacy||December 2, 1861||N/A||No recorded vote|
|Henry C. Burnett||Disloyalty to the Union; fighting for the Confederacy||December 2, 1861||N/A||No recorded vote|
|Michael J. Myers||Convicted of bribery||October 2, 1980||H. Res. 794 (96th Cong.)||376-30|
|James A. Traficant||Convicted of conspiracy to commit bribery, defraud U.S., receipt of illegal gratuities, obstruction of justice, filing false tax returns, and racketeering||July 24, 2002||H. Res. 495 (107th Cong.)||420-1|
Members Who Have Been Censured By the House of Representatives
Censure registers the House’s deep disapproval of Member misconduct that, nevertheless, does not meet the threshold for expulsion. Once the House approves the sanction by majority vote, the censured Member must stand in the well of the House (“the bar of the House” was the nineteenth-century term) while the Speaker or presiding officer reads aloud the censure resolution and its preamble as a form of public rebuke. Learn more about the historical origins of censure.
|William Stanbery||Insulting Speaker of the House Andrew Stevenson during floor debate||July 11, 1832||N/A||93-44|
|Joshua R. Giddings||"Unwarranted and unwarrantable" conduct for presenting a series of anti-slavery resolutions violating the House gag rule||March 22, 1842||N/A||125-69|
|Laurence M. Keitt||Assisting in assault on Senator Charles Sumner||July 16, 1856||N/A||106-96|
|Benjamin G. Harris||Encouraged Confederacy in House debate to expel Representative Alexander Long||April 9, 1864||N/A||98-20|
|Alexander Long||Supporting the recognition of the Confederacy in a floor speech||April 14, 1864||N/A||80-70|
|John W. Chanler||Insulting the House by introducing resolution containing unparliamentary language||May 14, 1866||N/A||72-30|
|Lovell H. Rouseau||Assaulting Representative Josiah Grinnell of Iowa with a cane||July 17, 18661||N/A||89-30|
|John W. Hunter||Unparliamentary language for insulting a Member during debate||January 26, 1867||N/A||77-33|
|Fernando Wood||Unparliamentary language for describing Reconstruction legislation as a "monstrosity"||January 15, 1868||N/A||114-39|
|Edward D. Holbrook||Unparliamentary language for stating in debate that another Member made false assertions||February 4, 1869||N/A||No recorded vote|
|Benjamin Whittemore||Sold multiple military academy appointments2||February 24, 1870||N/A||187-0|
|John T. DeWeese||Sold a military academy appointment3||March 1, 1870||N/A||170-0|
|Roderick R. Butler||Sold a military academy appointment||March 17, 1870||N/A||158-0|
|Oakes Ames||Sold $33 million worth of stock in the "Crédit Mobilier" scandal to Members of Congress and executive officials at an undervalued price to influence votes and decisions||February 27, 1873||N/A||182-36|
|James Brooks||Solicited and accepted 50 shares of "Crédit Mobilier" stock at undervalued prices||February 27, 1873||N/A||174-32|
|John Y. Brown||Unparliamentary language for insulting a Member during debate||February 4, 1875||N/A||161-79|
|William D. Bynum||Unparliamentary language for insulting a Member during debate||May 17, 1890||N/A||126-104|
|Thomas L. Blanton||Unparliamentary language for inserting a document into the Congressional Record that contained indecent and obscene language||October 27, 1921||N/A||293-112|
|Charles C. Diggs||Convicted on 11 counts of mail fraud and 18 counts of false statements in a payroll fraud scandal||July 31, 1979||H. Res. 378 (96th Cong.)||414-0|
|Charles H. Wilson||Receiving improper gifts; improper use of congressional funds; improper personal use of campaign funds||June 10, 1980||H. Res 660 (96th Cong.)||By voice vote|
|Gerry E. Studds||Sexual misconduct with a House Page||July 20, 1983||H. Res. 265 (98th Cong.)||421-3|
|Daniel B. Crane||Sexual misconduct with a House Page||July 20, 1983||H. Res. 266 (98th Cong.)||421-3|
|Charles B. Rangel||Misuse of congressional letterhead for fundraising; impermissible use of rent-controlled facility for campaign headquarters; inaccurate financial reports and federal tax returns||December 2, 2010||H. Res. 1737 (111th Cong.)||333-79|
Members Who Have Been Reprimanded By the House of Representatives
For much of the House’s history, in fact well into the twentieth century, the word reprimand was used interchangeably with censure. Since the creation of a formal ethics process in the late 1960s, a reprimand registers the House’s disapproval for conduct that warrants a less severe rebuke than censure. Learn more about the historical origins of reprimand.
|Robert L. F. Sikes||Improper financial disclosure and conflict of interest||July 29, 1976||H. Res 1421 (94th Cong.)||381-3|
|Charles H. Wilson||False statement before Ethics Committee investigating the influence of a foreign government||October 13, 1978||H. Res. 1414 (95th Cong.)||329-41|
|John J. McFall||Failure to report campaign contributions from a foreign lobbyist||October 13, 1978||H. Res. 1415 (95th Cong.)||By voice vote|
|Edward J. Roybal||Failure to report campaign contributions; converted campaign funds to personal use||October 13, 1978||H. Res. 1416 (95th Cong.)||By voice vote|
|George V. Hansen||For conviction of four counts of making false statements related to financial disclosure form||July 31, 1984||H. Res. 558 (98th Cong.)||354-52|
|Austin J. Murphy||"Ghost voting" in which Murphy had another person vote on his behalf; improper use of official resources||December 18, 1987||H. Res 335 (100th Cong.)||324-68|
|Barney Frank||Using political influence to fix parking tickets and influence probation officers for personal friend||July 26, 1990||H. Res 440 (101st Cong.)||408-18|
|Newt Gingrich||Allowing a Member-affiliated tax-exempt organization to be used for political purposes; providing inaccurate and unreliable information to Ethics Committee||January 21, 1997||H. Res 31 (105th Cong.)||395-28|
|Addison Graves (Joe) Wilson||Interrupting President's remarks before a Joint Session which was a "breach of decorum and degraded the proceedings" of the Joint Session.||September 15, 2009||H. Res. 744 (111th Cong.)||240-179|
|Laura Richardson||Compelling official congressional staff to work on her political campaign||August 2, 2012||H. Res. 755 (112th Cong.)||Unanimous consent|
1Rosseau was formally censured before the bar of the House on July 21, 1866.
2Whittemore resigned before expulsion and the House "condemned" him.
3DeWeese resigned before expulsion and the House "condemned" him.