*Party division totals are based on election day results.
Republicans regained control of both the House and Senate after the 1918 elections. President Woodrow Wilson’s dream for a League of Nations died when the Treaty of Versailles, ending World War I, failed in the 66th Congress (1919–1921). Congress privatized the nation’s railroads and merchant marine fleet. After decades of lobbying by temperance activists, Congress also approved the 18th Amendment banning the production, transportation, and sale of alcohol. Once the states approved the 18th Amendment, Congress implemented Prohibition with passage of the Volstead Act. Congress also sent the 19th Amendment, guaranteeing women’s suffrage, to the states for ratification.
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To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section
1For this period, there is no official record in the minutes of the Democratic Caucus or elsewhere of the name of the Democratic Whip.
2Elected May 19, 1919