*Party division totals are based on election day results.
Democrats controlled the 63rd Congress (1913–1915) after sweeping the 1912 elections. President Woodrow Wilson implemented a long-held belief that the executive should be the nation’s legislative leader. He revived the original practice of addressing Congress in person and shepherded major legislation to passage: tariff and anti-trust reform, the creation of the Federal Reserve System, and the establishment of the Federal Trade Commission. The outbreak of World War I in Europe, though, threatened the future of reform.