*Party division totals are based on election day results.
France resented America’s 1795 Jay Treaty with England and broke off diplomatic relations with the young country, sparking an undeclared naval war which dominated the 5th Congress (1797–1799). Connecticut’s Roger Griswold and Vermont’s Matthew Lyon brawled on the House Floor after President John Adams recommended that Congress prepare the military while renewing negotiation efforts. When French demands for bribes ended negotiations, Congress established the Navy Department to oversee the fleet, the U.S. Marine Corps, and the draconian Alien and Sedition Acts. As the Congress ended, President Adams announced another round of negotiations with France.
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To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section