*Party division totals are based on election day results.
Democrats won control of both the 53rd Congress (1893–1895) and the White House after the 1892 elections, enabling them to repeal the Reconstruction-era Force Acts that mandated federal supervision of Southern elections. Party control, however, crumbled as the economy went into a sharp and deep downturn—8,000 businesses went bust in six months. And when champions of the gold standard responded by successfully repealing the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Democrats split into silver and gold factions. Democrats also divided over tariff reform after Congress barely reduced national duties.