*Party division totals are based on election day results.
Democrats won control of the House, but the Senate and presidency remained Republican after the 1890 elections. Nevertheless, the ambitious and cooperative 52nd Congress (1891–1893) enacted an eight-hour workday for federal blue-collar workers, mandated new safety requirements on railway companies, and renewed the Chinese Exclusion Act for 10 years. In foreign policy, President Benjamin Harrison submitted a Hawaiian annexation treaty, but Congress adjourned before considering it. Despite its legislative record, this Congress failed to address the country’s mounting financial crises, and as the economy teetered on the edge of recession Populist unrest began popping up across the country.
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To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section