*Party division totals are based on election day results.
International anxieties blended with domestic politics as the Jay Treaty controversy continued to reverberate in the 4th Congress (1795–1797). The Senate approved the treaty as apprehensive Americans divided over whether Great Britain had gotten the better bargain. A hostile House sought to undercut the agreement by legislating around it, but ultimately provided the funding needed to implement the treaty. The election of Albert Gallatin of Pennsylvania finally provided the House the financial expertise to the administration’s policies.
See more Historical Highlights.
To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section