*Party division totals are based on election day results.
/tiles/non-collection/s/speaker_randall_2005_16_29_1.xmlCollection of the U.S. House of Representatives About this object
Democrats retained control of the House, captured the Senate, and ramped up their efforts to undercut Reconstruction legislation protecting African-American voting rights in the 46th Congress (1879–1881). Congress continued to challenge President Rutherford B. Hayes by attaching “riders”—substantive amendments—to Army appropriations bills prohibiting federal funding from being used to protect voting places in the former Confederacy. Democrats tried this tactic seven times—and Hayes vetoed each attempt—before Congress abandoned its efforts.