*Party division totals are based on election day results.
The 1866 elections all but ended presidential Reconstruction. The Republicans won overwhelming majorities in both the House and Senate, putting them in a position to easily override any veto by President Andrew Johnson. The 40th Congress (1867–1869) passed three major Reconstruction Acts that put the former rebel states under military rule. When President Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, in apparent violation of the Tenure of Office Act, the House brought 11 articles of impeachment against him. In the closing months of the Congress, the Senate deliberated and acquitted Johnson by a single vote.
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To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section
1Elected Speaker, March 3, 1869, and served one day.
2Conference minutes show three Members (Representative Nathaniel Banks of Massachusetts, Luck Poland of Vermont, and Samuel Hooper of Massachusetts) chairing three separate meetings.