*Party division totals are based on election day results.
Republicans kept control of the 39th Congress (1865–1867), and Abraham Lincoln went back to the White House following the 1864 elections. Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865, however, elevated Andrew Johnson to the presidency. Johnson took control of the South’s reconstruction, freely issued pardons to former Confederates, and backed the new segregated state governments. Congress quickly circumvented Johnson's authority and passed the First Reconstruction Act, which put the South under military rule. It also designed an Army hierarchy independent of the President and passed the Tenure of Office Act, which required the Senate to approve the removal of executive officials.