*Party division totals are based on election day results.
Emergent political factions made the 2nd Congress (1791–1793) contentious. One group favored President George Washington and his decision to strengthen federal authority, while another sniped at his Treasury Secretary, Alexander Hamilton, for having centralized the nation’s banking power. Factionalism got so bad that some Members attempted unsuccessfully to investigate Treasury Department operations. This Congress established the post office system, required all able-bodied males to join a state militia, and enacted a Fugitive Slave Act. The House, in its first congressional investigation, examined a military disaster on the western frontier after American Indians routed U.S. troops.
See more Historical Highlights.
To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section