*Party division totals are based on election day results.
Tariff politics dominated the 22nd Congress (1831–1833). Increasing Southern complaints over the 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” prompted passage of a revision in 1832. Still disgruntled, South Carolinians championed nullification, a doctrine that would allow each state to judge the constitutionality of federal laws. In response, Congress passed a Compromise Tariff in 1833 and authorized the military to uphold it. A Whig effort to renew the Second Bank of the United States before its charter expired provoked a veto from President Andrew Jackson—the first veto in American history based on policy rather than on legal grounds.
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To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section