*Party division totals are based on election day results.
President James Monroe’s annual message to the 18th Congress (1823–1825) warned Europe against interfering with Western Hemisphere nations—a foreign policy agenda known today as the Monroe Doctrine. Speaker Henry Clay outlined a plan for a national system on internal improvements (roads, canals, harbors). When no candidate won a majority of the Electoral College in 1824, the House—as required by the Constitution— elected John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson who had received more popular votes. When Adams named Clay his Secretary of State, the Jacksonians charged that a “corrupt bargain” had decided the election.