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12th Congress (1811–1813)

Congressional Profile

Total Membership:

  • 143 Representatives
  • 5 Delegates

Party Divisions:*

  • 36 Federalists
  • 107 Jeffersonian Republicans

*Party division totals are based on election day results.

Congress Overview

The 12th Congress (1811–1813) faced two major threats as Great Britain and France continued to disrupt American trade, and the western Indian tribes began mobilizing against the U.S. under the direction of the Shawnee leader, Tecumseh. A new generation of congressional leaders, such as Henry Clay of Kentucky (elected Speaker on his first day in the House) and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, championed an aggressive response to the crises. Their legislation authorized the expansion of the armed services, but by the time America went to war with Great Britain in 1812, the country remained ill-prepared.

Historical Highlights

See more Historical Highlights.

Member Information

  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, (1774–2005), Official Annotated Membership Roster by State with Vacancy and Special Election Information for the 12th Congress. [PDF]
  • Learn more about the House of Representatives with an interactive map

Learn more about the People of the People's House

Leadership & Officers

Speaker of the House:
Henry Clay (D–Kentucky)
Clerk of the House:
Patrick Magruder
Sergeant at Arms:
Thomas Dunn
Chaplain of the House:
Jesse Lee – Methodist
Nicholas Sneathen – Methodist
Doorkeeper:
Thomas Claxton

To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section