*Party division totals are based on election day results.
The Franco-English war spilled into the Atlantic as both sides restricted neutral shipping. In response, President Thomas Jefferson urged Congress to embargo all U.S. trade with the belligerents as long as the war raged. Congress quickly passed the Embargo Act, but rampant smuggling soon led to an Enforcement Act that greatly extended the police power of the Federal Government. Just days before President Jefferson left office, Congress replaced the embargo with the Nonintercourse Act. It banned trade with Great Britain and France until one or both recognized neutral shipping rights.
Learn more about the House in Historical Highlights.
To view complete lists of individuals who have served in these leadership and official positions since the 1st Congress, visit the People section